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The third signal cytokine IL-12 rescues the anti-viral function of exhausted HBV-specific CD8 T cells.

Schurich, A; Pallett, LJ; Lubowiecki, M; Singh, HD; Gill, US; Kennedy, PT; Nastouli, E; ... Maini, MK; + view all (2013) The third signal cytokine IL-12 rescues the anti-viral function of exhausted HBV-specific CD8 T cells. PLoS Pathogens , 9 (3) , Article e1003208. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003208. Green open access

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Abstract

Optimal immune activation of naïve CD8 T cells requires signal 1 mediated by the T cell receptor, signal 2 mediated by co-stimulation and signal 3 provided by pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the potential for signal 3 cytokines to rescue anti-viral responses in functionally exhausted T cells has not been defined. We investigated the effect of using third signal cytokines IL-12 or IFN-α to rescue the exhausted CD8 T cell response characteristic of patients persistently infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). We found that IL-12, but not IFN-α, potently augmented the capacity of HBV-specific CD8 T cells to produce effector cytokines upon stimulation by cognate antigen. Functional recovery mediated by IL-12 was accompanied by down-modulation of the hallmark inhibitory receptor PD-1 and an increase in the transcription factor T-bet. PD-1 down-regulation was observed in HBV but not CMV-specific T cells, in line with our finding that the highly functional CMV response was not further enhanced by IL-12. IL-12 enhanced a number of characteristics of HBV-specific T cells important for viral control: cytotoxicity, polyfunctionality and multispecificity. Furthermore, IL-12 significantly decreased the pro-apoptotic molecule Bim, which is capable of mediating premature attrition of HBV-specific CD8 T cells. Combining IL-12 with blockade of the PD-1 pathway further increased CD8 functionality in the majority of patients. These data provide new insights into the distinct signalling requirements of exhausted T cells and the potential to recover responses optimised to control persistent viral infections.

Type: Article
Title: The third signal cytokine IL-12 rescues the anti-viral function of exhausted HBV-specific CD8 T cells.
Location: US
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003208
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003208
Language: English
Additional information: © 2013 Schurich et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. PMCID: PMC3597507
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inst for Liver and Digestive Hlth
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1389315
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