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Active Scores: Representation and Synchronization in Human-Computer Performance of Popular Music

Dannenberg, RB; Gold, NE; Liang, D; Xia, G; (2014) Active Scores: Representation and Synchronization in Human-Computer Performance of Popular Music. Computer Music Journal , 38 (2) 51 - 62. 10.1162/COMJ_a_00239. Green open access

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Abstract

Computers have the potential to significantly extend the practice of popular music based on steady tempo and mostly determined form. There are significant challenges to overcome, however, due to constraints including accurate timing based on beats and adherence to a form or structure despite possible changes that may occur, possibly even during performance. We describe an approach to synchronization across media that takes into account latency due to communication delays and audio buffering. We also address the problem of mapping from a conventional score with repeats and other structures to an actual performance, which can involve both “flattening” the score and rearranging it, as is common in popular music. Finally, we illustrate the possibilities of the score as a bidirectional user interface in a real-time system for music performance, allowing the user to direct the computer through a digitally displayed score, and allowing the computer to indicate score position back to human performers.

Type: Article
Title: Active Scores: Representation and Synchronization in Human-Computer Performance of Popular Music
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1162/COMJ_a_00239
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/COMJ_a_00239
Language: English
Additional information: © 2014 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Computer Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1388184
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