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Instance memorization and category influence: challenging the evidence for multiple systems in category learning

Johansen, MK; Fouquet, N; Savage, J; Shanks, DR; (2013) Instance memorization and category influence: challenging the evidence for multiple systems in category learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , 66 (6) 1204 - 1226. 10.1080/17470218.2012.735679. Green open access

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Abstract

A class of dual-system theories of categorization assumes a categorization system based on actively formed prototypes in addition to a separate instance memory system. It has been suggested that, because they have used poorly differentiated category structures (such as the influential "5-4" structure), studies supporting the alternative exemplar theory reveal little about the properties of the categorization system. Dual-system theories assume that the instance memory system only influences categorization behaviour via similarity to single isolated instances, without generalization across instances. However, we present the results of two experiments employing the 5-4 structure to argue against this. Experiment 1 contrasted learning in the standard 5-4 structure with learning in an even more poorly differentiated 5-4 structure. In Experiment 2, participants memorized the 5-4 structure based on a five minute simultaneous presentation of all nine category instances. Both experiments revealed category influences as reflected by differences in instance learnability and generalization, at variance with the dual-system prediction. These results have implications for the exemplars versus prototypes debate and the nature of human categorization mechanisms.

Type: Article
Title: Instance memorization and category influence: challenging the evidence for multiple systems in category learning
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1080/17470218.2012.735679
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2012.735679
Language: English
Additional information: This is an Author's Original Manuscript of an article whose final and definitive form, the Version of Record, has been published in The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 2012 © Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/ [http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2012.735679]
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences > Experimental Psychology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1373100
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