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The relationship between apamin binding and channel block in KCa2 potassium channels.

Moss, GWJ; Garbarg, M; Jenkinson, DH; Benton, DCH; (2013) The relationship between apamin binding and channel block in KCa2 potassium channels. PLoS One , 8 (9) , Article e73328. 10.1371/journal.pone.0073328. Green open access

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Abstract

Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa2.1,2.2,2.3) are widely distributed throughout the body and are involved in diverse physiological processes including the regulation of neuronal firing and smooth muscle contraction. They are also potential targets in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia. The KCa2.2 and 2.3 members of the family are blocked by the peptide toxin apamin at low concentrations, however, the mechanism of block by apamin is unclear. In electrophysiological experiments apamin has been reported to block Kca2.2 and 2.3 with IC50 ~100 pM and ~1nM respectively. In contrast, in ligand binding experiments using [125I]-mono-iodoapamin it has been found that apamin does not discriminate between Kca2.2 and 2.3 and that it binds with significantly higher affinity ( ~5pM). This discrepancy has led to the suggestion that, rather than acting as a classical pore blocker, apamin exerts its action by an allosteric mechanism. It is notable that the ligand binding studies reported so far have been conducted with isolated cell membranes in non-physiological solution with low ionic strength. We have investigated this discrepancy between results from ligand binding and electrophysiological studies by comparing binding of [125I]-mono-iodoapamin and inhibition of KCa2 current in intact HEK 293 cells using identical physiological solutions. In these conditions we found that apamin bound to KCa2.1 and KCa 2.3 with KL 60 and 606 pM, close to values of IC50 from electrophysiological experiments. We also compared the ability of some known SK channel blockers, UCL 1848, UCL 1684, gallamine and dequalinium, to displace labelled apamin and inhibit KCa2 current. With these compounds we found a good correlation between K¬i and IC50. These findings suggest that the discrepancy between binding and block might arise from differences in the experimental protocols used. To examine this we examined apamin block of KCa2 current in low ionic strength solutions in which NaCl was iso-osmotically replaced by sucrose. In these conditions 100 pM apamin caused 92 ± 0.1 % block as against 51 ± 5 % block in physiological ionic strength. We conclude that binding data obtained from membrane preparations must be interpreted with care when making comparisons with data from functional experiments and that this has implications for current views on the mechanism of action of apamin as an SK channel blocker

Type: Article
Title: The relationship between apamin binding and channel block in KCa2 potassium channels.
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073328
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073328
Language: English
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Neuro, Physiology and Pharmacology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1368251
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