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Marine protected areas in the UK: challenges in combining top-down and bottom-up approaches to governance

Jones, PJS; (2012) Marine protected areas in the UK: challenges in combining top-down and bottom-up approaches to governance. Environmental Conservation , 39 (3) 248 - 258. 10.1017/S0376892912000136. Green open access

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Abstract

This review outlines the policy frameworks for marine conservation zones (MCZs) and marine special areas of conservation (SACs), which are the main components of the emerging UK marine protected area (MPA) network. If current recommendations are implemented, the coverage of MPAs in English seas could rise to 27%. The governance challenges that this will raise are explored through case studies of MPA initiatives in south-west England. Whilst the initial processes by which MCZ recommendations have been developed provided for stakeholder participation (bottom-up), the main steer has been from central government (top-down). The subsequent designation and implementation of MCZs is likely to be more top-down. Marine SAC processes have, by contrast, been top-down from the outset. The fishing industry fears that more MPAs will lead to increasing restrictions, whilst conservationists fear that MPAs will not be sufficiently protected, potentially becoming paper MPAs. Both argue that the burden of proof should be placed on the other party. Such combinations of top-down (central government-led) and bottom-up (community and user-led) approaches and the related conflicts are typical of government-led MPAs in temperate countries that have higher governance capacities. Top-down approaches tend to dominate, but this does not mean that they cannot be combined with bottom-up approaches.

Type: Article
Title: Marine protected areas in the UK: challenges in combining top-down and bottom-up approaches to governance
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1017/S0376892912000136
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0376892912000136
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2012 The online version of this article is published by Cambridge University Press within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence <http://creativecommons.org/licensesw/by-nc-sa/2.5/>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Keywords: governance, marine protected areas, temperate
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Dept of Geography
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1362686
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