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Effect of Retirement on Alcohol Consumption: Longitudinal Evidence from the French Gazel Cohort Study

Zins, M; Gueguen, A; Kivimaki, M; Singh-Manoux, A; Leclerc, A; Vahtera, J; Westerlund, H; ... Goldberg, M; + view all (2011) Effect of Retirement on Alcohol Consumption: Longitudinal Evidence from the French Gazel Cohort Study. PLOS ONE , 6 (10) , Article e26531. 10.1371/journal.pone.0026531. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Little is known about the effect of retirement on alcohol consumption. The objectives were to examine changes in alcohol consumption following retirement, and whether these patterns differ by gender and socioeconomic status.Methods and Findings: We assessed alcohol consumption annually from 5 years before to 5 years after retirement among 10,023 men and 2,361 women of the French Gazel study. Data were analyzed separately for men and women, using repeated-measures logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations. Five years prior to retirement, the prevalence of heavy drinking was about 16% among men, and not patterned by socioeconomic status. Among women, this prevalence was 19.5% in managers, 14.7% in intermediate occupations, and 12.8% in clerical workers. Around retirement, the estimated prevalence of heavy drinking increased in both sexes. In men, this increase was 3.1 percentage points for managers, 3.2 in intermediate occupations, 4.6 in clerical workers, and 1.3 in manual workers. In women, this increase was 6.6 percentage points among managers, 4.3 in intermediate occupations, and 3.3 among clerical workers. In men the increase around retirement was followed by a decrease over the following four years, not significant among manual workers; among women such a decrease was also observed in the non-managerial occupations. It is difficult to assess the extent to which the results observed in this cohort would hold for other working populations, other conditions of employment, or in other cultural settings. A plausible explanation for the increase in heavy drinking around retirement could be that increased leisure time after retirement provides more opportunities for drinking, and not having to work during the day after may decrease constraints on drinking.Conclusions: Our findings of increased consumption around retirement suggest that information about negative effects of alcohol consumption should be included in pre-retirement planning programs.

Type: Article
Title: Effect of Retirement on Alcohol Consumption: Longitudinal Evidence from the French Gazel Cohort Study
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026531
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026531
Language: English
Additional information: © 2011 Zins et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. MZ, AG, AL and MG are supported by INSERM and Versailles Saint Quentin University, JV and MK are supported by the Academy of Finland (grants #117604, #124271, #124322 and #129262), MK is additionally supported by the BUPA Specialist research grant, European Union New OSH ERA research programme and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and National Institute on Aging (R01HL036310-20A2; R01AG013196), NIH, USA. HW is supported by the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (FAS, grants #2004–2021, #2007-1143, #2009-1758), JEF is supported by the National Institute on Aging, NIH (R01AG013196), ASM is supported by a EUYRI award from the European Science Foundation and the National Institute on Aging, NIH (R01AG013196; R01AG034454). The Gazel Cohort Study was supported by EDF-GDF and INSERM, and received grants from the ‘Cohortes Santé TGIR Program’ (http://www.iresp.net/), Agence Nationale de la Recherche-ANR (http://www.agence-nationale-recherche.fr​/) and Agence française de sécurité sanitaire de l'environnement et du travail-AFSSET (http://www.afsset.fr/index_2010.php). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Keywords: RISK-FACTORS, DRINKING, ADULTS, POPULATION, TRAJECTORIES, PREDICTORS, MORTALITY, MIDLIFE, GENDER, TRENDS
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1329544
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