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Development of attentional processes in ADHD and normal children

Gupta, R; Kar, BR; (2009) Development of attentional processes in ADHD and normal children. Progress in Brain Research , 176 pp. 259-276. Green open access

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Abstract

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder. Typical development of attentional processes is rapid during early childhood. ADHD results in impairment in response inhibition, error monitoring, attentional disengagement, executive attention, and delay aversion and may effect the ongoing development of these processes during childhood. We examined the development of attentional processes in children with ADHD and normal children. Two hundred forty children (120 in each group) in the age range of 6–9 years participated in the study. Four tasks: Stop-Signal, attentional disengagement, attention network, and choice delay task were administered. Stop signal reaction time, switch costs, conflict effect, and percentage choice of short delay reward was higher in ADHD group compared to normal group. Post error of slowing was less in ADHD children. Endogenous orienting effect was more in normal children compared to ADHD children. Different developmental trajectories were observed for control functions in normal children. Major development in response inhibition occurred in 7–8 years, error monitoring in 6–9 years, and attentional disengagement in 7–9 years. Late development in alerting network was observed in normal children at age 9 years. No developmental changes occurred on these control functions in ADHD children aged 6–9 years. Age related changes were observed on delay aversion between 6 and 9 years in normal children, while it changed between 6 and 7 years in ADHD children. Performance was not changed on orienting and conflict attentional networks in both the children except conflict effect reduced between 7 and 9 years in ADHD children under double cue condition. Conflict network was interacted with the alerting and orienting network in normal children; specifically conflict network interacted with the orienting network in younger children (age 6 years) and with alerting network in older children (age 9 years). In ADHD group interaction between alerting and conflict network was observed only in the double cue condition. Together these results indicated that the deficits in control processes accumulate with age in ADHD children Present study favors the conceptual view of ADHD as a stable deficit in cognitive control functions, which are implicated in the pathology of ADHD. These results have theoretical implication for the theories of executive control and ADHD.

Type: Article
Title: Development of attentional processes in ADHD and normal children
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Publisher version: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.c...
Keywords: ADHD, development, response inhibition, error monitoring, attentional disengagement, attentional networks, delay aversion, stable deficit
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences > Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1328524
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