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Expression and modulation of an NADPH oxidase in mammalian astrocytes

Abramov, A.Y.; Jacobson, J.; Wientjes, F.; Hothersall, J.; Canevari, L.; Duchen, M.R.; (2005) Expression and modulation of an NADPH oxidase in mammalian astrocytes. Journal of Neuroscience , 25 (40) pp. 9176-9184. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1632-05.2005. Green open access

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Abstract

Amyloid β peptides generate oxidative stress in hippocampal astrocytes through a mechanism sensitive to inhibitors of the NADPH oxidase [diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and apocynin]. Seeking evidence for the expression and function of the enzyme in primary hippocampal astrocytes, we confirmed the expression of the subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase by Western blot analysis and by immunofluorescence and coexpression with the astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein both in cultures and in vivo. Functional assays using lucigenin luminescence, dihydroethidine, or dicarboxyfluorescein fluorescence to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) demonstrated DPI and apocynin-sensitive ROS generation in response to the phorbol ester PMA and to raised [Ca2+]c after application of ionomycin or P2u receptor activation. Stimulation by PMA but not Ca2+ was inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors staurosporine and hispidin. Responses were absent in transgenic mice lacking gp91phox. Expression of gp91phox and p67phox was increased in reactive astrocytes, which showed increased rates of both resting and stimulated ROS generation. NADPH oxidase activity was modulated by intracellular pH, suppressed by intracellular alkalinization, and enhanced by acidification. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone suppressed basal ROS generation but markedly increased PMA-stimulated ROS generation. This was independent of mitochondrial ROS production, because it was unaffected by mitochondrial depolarization with rotenone and oligomycin. Thus, the NADPH oxidase is expressed in astrocytes and is functional, activated by PKC and intracellular calcium, modulated by pHi, and upregulated by astrocyte activation. The astrocytic NADPH oxidase is likely to play important roles in CNS physiology and pathology.

Type: Article
Title: Expression and modulation of an NADPH oxidase in mammalian astrocytes
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1632-05.2005
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1632-05.2005
Language: English
Additional information: Published by the Society of Neuroscience This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The license allows you to copy, distribute, and transmit the work, as well as adapting it. However, you must attribute the work to the author (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work), and cannot use the work for commercial purposes without prior permission of the author. If you alter or build upon this work, you can distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, California, 94041, USA.
Keywords: NADPH oxidase, intracellular calcium, free radicals, oxidative stress, alzheimer's disease, amyloid β peptide
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Movement Neurosciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10405
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