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What are the factors affecting primary care choice when the access under health insurance scheme is limited?: a cross-sectional study in Bandung, Indonesia

Fauziyyah, Afina Nur; Shibanuma, Akira; Ong, Ken Ing Cherng; Jimba, Masamine; (2024) What are the factors affecting primary care choice when the access under health insurance scheme is limited?: a cross-sectional study in Bandung, Indonesia. BMC Primary Care , 25 , Article 64. 10.1186/s12875-024-02296-6. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Ensuring equal access to primary care services is crucial, as the gateway to a higher level of care. Indonesia has been trying to increase financial access to medical care by administering national health insurance known as BPJS-Health (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial Kesehatan) since 2014. However, BPJS-Health beneficiaries can only use their benefits at a limited number of registered primary care providers (BPJS-Health partners). This study investigated the geographical coverage of BPJS-Health and BPJS-Health beneficiaries’ primary care choices, based on their characteristics and healthcare preferences in the target areas of Bandung, Indonesia. / Methods: The setting of this cross-sectional study was the areas with low physical access to BPJS-Health partners but high physical access to non-BPJS-Health partners. Physical access was determined by spatial network analysis, resulting in a geographical coverage map. A total of 216 adults were recruited and they completed the questionnaire about their primary care choice. All participants had been registered with the BPJS-Health system and living in the study areas. Their participation in non-BPJS-Health was also evaluated. Participants’ choice of care was assessed in three different scenarios, when the individual was experiencing mild, chronic, and serious illnesses. / Results: BPJS-Health partners’ geographical coverage was unequally distributed in Bandung. Being registered with non-BPJS-Health company was negatively associated with the more frequent choice of using BPJS-Health partners’ services (AOR = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.06-0.58, P = 0.004) among BPJS-Health beneficiaries. For serious illnesses, having a high income was associated with choosing non-BPJS-Health partners and hospitals (AOR = 4.90; 95% CI, 1.16-20.77, P = 0.031). When dealing with mild and chronic illnesses, participants were concerned about the quality of treatment they would receive as a major factor in choosing a primary care provider. However, receiving better treatment quality was negatively associated with choosing BPJS-Health partners in all cases of illness severities. / Conclusions: Sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare preference factors, and health insurance status were associated with participants’ primary care choices in the target areas of Bandung, Indonesia. BPJS-Health partners’ coverage map and the preference factors are potentially important for policymakers, especially for the development of future BPJS-Health partnerships.

Type: Article
Title: What are the factors affecting primary care choice when the access under health insurance scheme is limited?: a cross-sectional study in Bandung, Indonesia
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12875-024-02296-6
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-024-02296-6
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Primary care, Health insurance, Preference, Choice, Spatial network analysis
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Practice and Policy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10191267
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