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The Gut Microbiota in Parkinson Disease: Interactions with Drugs and Potential for Therapeutic Applications

Menozzi, Elisa; Schapira, Anthony HV; (2024) The Gut Microbiota in Parkinson Disease: Interactions with Drugs and Potential for Therapeutic Applications. CNS Drugs 10.1007/s40263-024-01073-4. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

The concept of a 'microbiota-gut-brain axis' has recently emerged as an important player in the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease (PD), not least because of the reciprocal interaction between gut bacteria and medications. The gut microbiota can influence levodopa kinetics, and conversely, drugs administered for PD can influence gut microbiota composition. Through a two-step enzymatic pathway, gut microbes can decarboxylate levodopa to dopamine in the small intestine and then dehydroxylate it to m-tyramine, thus reducing availability. Inhibition of bacterial decarboxylation pathways could therefore represent a strategy to increase levodopa absorption. Other bacterial perturbations common in PD, such as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection, can also modulate levodopa metabolism, and eradication therapies may improve levodopa absorption. Interventions targeting the gut microbiota offer a novel opportunity to manage disabling motor complications and dopa-unresponsive symptoms. Mediterranean diet-induced changes in gut microbiota composition might improve a range of non-motor symptoms. Prebiotics can increase levels of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and decrease pro-inflammatory species, with positive effects on clinical symptoms and levodopa kinetics. Different formulations of probiotics showed beneficial outcomes on constipation, with some of them improving dopamine levels; however, the most effective dosage and duration and long-term effects of these treatments remain unknown. Data from faecal microbiota transplantation studies are preliminary, but show encouraging trends towards improvement in both motor and non-motor outcomes.This article summarises the most up-to-date knowledge in pharmacomicrobiomics in PD, and discusses how the manipulation of gut microbiota represents a potential new therapeutic avenue for PD.

Type: Article
Title: The Gut Microbiota in Parkinson Disease: Interactions with Drugs and Potential for Therapeutic Applications
Location: New Zealand
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s40263-024-01073-4
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-024-01073-4
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits any non-commercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Movement Neurosciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10190525
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