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古巴比伦医学起源新解 [A New Understanding of the Origins of Ancient Babylonian Medicine]

Geller, Markham; (2024) 古巴比伦医学起源新解 [A New Understanding of the Origins of Ancient Babylonian Medicine]. 医疗社会史研究 [International Medical Historical Review] , 8 (2) , Article 3. Green open access

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Abstract

要 由于巫术在医学和治疗中不甚明确的作用,人们对巴比伦医学的 起源知之甚少。主要有两种职业会对疾病进行治疗:“巫师”(āšipu,exorcist) 和“医生”(asû,physician),这两种职业都有各自的治疗策略,包括咒语和 医疗处方。公元前第2千纪最早的证据表明,这两种互补的治疗方法之间存在 着明显区别。到公元前第1千纪,巫师和医生治疗行为的区别却开始变得模 糊,巫师所接受的训练往往包含医学知识,而医生的处方经常包含咒语。然 而,最近出版的有关巫术(āšipūtu)和医术(asûtu)的楔形文献表明,各类治 疗方法代表了独立的学科,在各自特殊的治疗理论下使用咒语或处方。例如, 巫术疗法采用诸如熏蒸之类的仪式,但避免使用医疗处方,而医学疗法则使用 非巫术性质的咒语,这些咒语实质上是对疾病起源或由自然事件引起的疾病的 病因学解释。这种情况表明,即使来自不同的专业领域,都包括诊断和预后, 任何医者在治疗病人时都可以自由研究或加以运用。 [The origins of Babylonian medicine have been poorly understood, because of confusion over the roles of magic within medicine and therapy. Treatments for illness were mainly divided between two professions, the “exorcist” (ashipu) and “ physician” ( asû), each with their own healing strategies involving incantations and medical prescriptions. While the earliest evidence from the second millennium BCE indicate clear distinctions between these complimentary approaches to therapy, by the first millennium BCE the divisions between the activities of the ashipu and asû begin to blur, since the training of the exorcist involved knowledge of medicine, while the prescriptions of the physician regularly incorporated incantations. However, recently published cuneiform catalogues of exorcism ( ashiputu) and medicine ( asûtu) show that healing therapies represented separate identifiable disciplines, which utilised incantations or recipes within discrete idiosyncratic methodologies. For instance, exorcism employed rituals such as fumigation but avoided the use of medical recipes, while medicine used non-magical incantations which were essentially etiological explanations of how disease originated or was caused by natural events. The picture which emerges indicates separate areas of expertise, which also included diagnostics and prognostics, which any practitioner was free to study or use when treating a patient.]

Type: Article
Title: 古巴比伦医学起源新解 [A New Understanding of the Origins of Ancient Babylonian Medicine]
Location: China
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Publisher version: http://www.ssapchina.com/
Language: Chinese
Additional information: This version is the version of record. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of Arts and Humanities
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of Arts and Humanities > Dept of Hebrew and Jewish Studies
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10188811
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