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Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Calcium Silicate Sealers against a Nutrient-Stressed Multispecies Biofilm

Bose, Rahul; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Foschi, Federico; Bakhsh, Abdulaziz; Kelly, Robert D; Deb, Sanjukta; Mannocci, Francesco; (2020) Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Calcium Silicate Sealers against a Nutrient-Stressed Multispecies Biofilm. Journal of Clinical Medicine , 9 (9) , Article E2722. 10.3390/jcm9092722. Green open access

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Abstract

PURPOSE: This study compared the antimicrobial efficacy of calcium silicate sealers (BioRoot RCS and Total Fill BC) and conventional sealers (AH Plus and Tubli-seal) against planktonic bacteria and a nutrient-stressed multispecies biofilm. METHODS: Antimicrobial properties of freshly mixed sealers were investigated using the direct contact test (DCT) and a nutrient-stressed multispecies biofilm comprised of five endodontic strains. Antimicrobial activity was determined using quantitative viable counts and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis with live/dead staining. The pH of the sealers was analysed over a period of 28 days in Hanks Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey tests and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for data analysis with a significance of 5%. RESULTS: All endodontic sealers exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against planktonic bacteria (p < 0.05). BioRoot RCS caused a significant reduction in viable counts of the biofilms compared to AH Plus and the control (p < 0.05), while no significant difference could be observed compared to TotalFill BC and Tubli-seal (p > 0.05). CLSM analysis showed that BioRoot RCS and TotalFill BC exhibited significant biofilm inhibition compared to Tubli-seal, AH Plus and the control (p < 0.05). BioRoot RCS presented with the highest microbial killing, followed by TotalFill BC and Tubli-seal. Alkalizing activity was seen from the onset by BioRoot RCS, TotalFill BC and AH Plus. After 28 days, BioRoot RCS demonstrated the highest pH in HBSS (pH > 12). CONCLUSIONS: Calcium silicate sealers exhibited effective antimicrobial properties. This was demonstrated by superior biofilm inhibition capacity and microbial killing, with strong alkalizing activity compared to epoxy-based and zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers.

Type: Article
Title: Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Calcium Silicate Sealers against a Nutrient-Stressed Multispecies Biofilm
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/jcm9092722
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092722
Language: English
Additional information: © 2020 by the Authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: antimicrobial properties, bioceramic sealers, biofilms, calcium silicate sealers, confocal laser scanning microscopy, dental materials, endodontic sealers
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute > Restorative Dental Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10188473
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