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Short-duration selective decontamination of the digestive tract infection control does not contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance burden in a pilot cluster randomised trial (the ARCTIC Study)

Kean, Iain Robert Louis; Clark, John A; Zhang, Zhenguang; Daubney, Esther; White, Deborah; Ferrando-Vivas, Paloma; Milla, Gema; ... Pathan, Nazima; + view all (2024) Short-duration selective decontamination of the digestive tract infection control does not contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance burden in a pilot cluster randomised trial (the ARCTIC Study). Gut 10.1136/gutjnl-2023-330851. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) is a well-studied but hotly contested medical intervention of enhanced infection control. Here, we aim to characterise the changes to the microbiome and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene profiles in critically ill children treated with SDD-enhanced infection control compared with conventional infection control. DESIGN: We conducted shotgun metagenomic microbiome and resistome analysis on serial oropharyngeal and faecal samples collected from critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients in a pilot multicentre cluster randomised trial of SDD. The microbiome and AMR profiles were compared for longitudinal and intergroup changes. Of consented patients, faecal microbiome baseline samples were obtained in 89 critically ill children. Additionally, samples collected during and after critical illness were collected in 17 children treated with SDD-enhanced infection control and 19 children who received standard care. RESULTS: SDD affected the alpha and beta diversity of critically ill children to a greater degree than standard care. At cessation of treatment, the microbiome of SDD patients was dominated by Actinomycetota, specifically Bifidobacterium, at the end of mechanical ventilation. Altered gut microbiota was evident in a subset of SDD-treated children who returned late longitudinal samples compared with children receiving standard care. Clinically relevant AMR gene burden was unaffected by the administration of SDD-enhanced infection control compared with standard care. SDD did not affect the composition of the oral microbiome compared with standard treatment. CONCLUSION: Short interventions of SDD caused a shift in the microbiome but not of the AMR gene pool in critically ill children at the end mechanical ventilation, compared with standard antimicrobial therapy.

Type: Article
Title: Short-duration selective decontamination of the digestive tract infection control does not contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance burden in a pilot cluster randomised trial (the ARCTIC Study)
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2023-330851
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2023-330851
Language: English
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Gastroenterology & Hepatology, ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY, DRUG RESISTANCE, PEDIATRIC INTENSIVE-CARE, COLONIZATION, MODEL, SDD
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10187686
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