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CALMS: Modelling the long-term health and economic impact of Covid-19 using agent-based simulation

Mintram, Kate; Anagnostou, Anastasia; Anokye, Nana Anokye; Okine, Edward; Groen, Derek; Saha, Arindam; Abubakar, Nura; ... Taylor, Simon JE; + view all (2022) CALMS: Modelling the long-term health and economic impact of Covid-19 using agent-based simulation. PLoS ONE , 17 (8) , Article e0272664. 10.1371/journal.pone.0272664. Green open access

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Abstract

We present our agent-based CoronAvirus Lifelong Modelling and Simulation (CALMS) model that aspires to predict the lifelong impacts of Covid-19 on the health and economy of a population. CALMS considers individual characteristics as well as comorbidities in calculating the risk of infection and severe disease. We conduct two sets of experiments aiming at demonstrating the validity and capabilities of CALMS. We run simulations retrospectively and validate the model outputs against hospitalisations, ICU admissions and fatalities in a UK population for the period between March and September 2020. We then run simulations for the lifetime of the cohort applying a variety of targeted intervention strategies and compare their effectiveness against the baseline scenario where no intervention is applied. Four scenarios are simulated with targeted vaccination programmes and periodic lockdowns. Vaccinations are targeted first at individuals based on their age and second at vulnerable individuals based on their health status. Periodic lockdowns, triggered by hospitalisations, are tested with and without vaccination programme in place. Our results demonstrate that periodic lockdowns achieve reductions in hospitalisations, ICU admissions and fatalities of 6-8% compared to the baseline scenario, with an associated intervention cost of £173 million per 1,000 people and targeted vaccination programmes achieve reductions in hospitalisations, ICU admissions and fatalities of 89-90%, compared to the baseline scenario, with an associated intervention cost of £51,924 per 1,000 people. We conclude that periodic lockdowns alone are ineffective at reducing health-related outputs over the long-term and that vaccination programmes which target only the clinically vulnerable are sufficient in providing healthcare protection for the population as a whole.

Type: Article
Title: CALMS: Modelling the long-term health and economic impact of Covid-19 using agent-based simulation
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0272664
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0272664
Language: English
Additional information: © 2022 Mintram et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: COVID-19, Communicable Disease Control, Hospitalization, Humans, Retrospective Studies, Vaccination
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Statistical Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10186578
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