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I'm Infected, Eat Me! Innate Immunity Mediated by Live, Infected Cells Signaling To Be Phagocytosed

Birkle, Tim; Brown, GC; (2021) I'm Infected, Eat Me! Innate Immunity Mediated by Live, Infected Cells Signaling To Be Phagocytosed. Infection and Immunity , 89 (5) , Article e00476-20. 10.1128/iai.00476-20. Green open access

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Abstract

Innate immunity against pathogens is known to be mediated by barriers to pathogen invasion, activation of complement, recruitment of immune cells, immune cell phagocytosis of pathogens, death of infected cells, and activation of the adaptive immunity via antigen presentation. Here, we propose and review evidence for a novel mode of innate immunity whereby live, infected host cells induce phagocytes to phagocytose the infected cell, thereby potentially reducing infection. We discuss evidence that host cells, infected by virus, bacteria, or other intracellular pathogens (i) release nucleotides and chemokines as find-me signals, (ii) expose on their surface phosphatidylserine and calreticulin as eat-me signals, (iii) release and bind opsonins to induce phagocytosis, and (iv) downregulate don’t-eat-me signals CD47, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC1), and sialic acid. As long as the pathogens of the host cell are destroyed within the phagocyte, then infection can be curtailed; if antigens from the pathogens are cross-presented by the phagocyte, then an adaptive response would also be induced. Phagocytosis of live infected cells may thereby mediate innate immunity.

Type: Article
Title: I'm Infected, Eat Me! Innate Immunity Mediated by Live, Infected Cells Signaling To Be Phagocytosed
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1128/iai.00476-20
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.00476-20
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the version of record. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: phagocytosis, phagoptosis, infection, immunity, virus, intracellular bacteria
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > UK Dementia Research Institute
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10186464
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