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The human genome harbours widespread exclusive yin yang haplotypes

Curtis, David; Amos, William; (2023) The human genome harbours widespread exclusive yin yang haplotypes. European Journal of Human Genetics 10.1038/s41431-023-01399-5. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

There have been reports of examples of exclusive yin yang haplotypes, differing at every locus, but there has been no systematic search for them. Unphased whole genome sequence data for 2504 unrelated 1000 Genomes subjects was searched for chains of SNPs having global minor allele frequency (MAF) > =0.1 made up of at least 20 SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium with each other and with no pair being separated by more than 9 other SNPs. The global distribution of these haplotypes was investigated, along with their ancestral origins and associations with genes and phenotypes. A number of previously unrecognised repeats were noted, flagged by all or most subjects being called as heterozygotes, and these were discarded. There were 5114 exclusive yin yang haplotypes each consisting of on average 34.8 SNPs, each spanning on average 15.7 kb and cumulatively covering 80 Mb. Although for some haplotypes the MAF varied markedly between populations the average global fixation index was similar to that for SNPs elsewhere in the genome and there was no evidence of enrichment for genes or gene ontologies. For all but 92 haplotypes there were partial forms present in the chimpanzee and/or Neanderthal genome, indicating that they had been formed in a gradual process but that intermediate haplotypes were now absent from modern humans. Exclusive yin yang haplotypes cover over 2% of the human genome. The mechanisms accounting for their formation and preservation are unclear. They may serve as useful markers of the dispersal of chromosomal regions through human history.

Type: Article
Title: The human genome harbours widespread exclusive yin yang haplotypes
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41431-023-01399-5
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-023-01399-5
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Genetics, Evolution and Environment
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10184545
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