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Salivary IgA and vimentin differentiate in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection: a study of 290 convalescent COVID-19 patients

Ellis, Samuel; Way, Rosie; Miranda, Nel; Smith, Claire; Burleigh, Alice; Doykov, Ivan; Kembou-Ringert, Japhette; ... Smith, Claire M; + view all (2023) Salivary IgA and vimentin differentiate in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection: a study of 290 convalescent COVID-19 patients. Mucosal Immunology 10.1016/j.mucimm.2023.11.007.. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 initially infects cells in the nasopharynx and oral cavity. The immune system at these mucosal sites plays a crucial role in minimizing viral transmission and infection. To develop new strategies for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, this study aimed to identify proteins that protect against viral infection in saliva. We collected 551 saliva samples from 290 healthcare workers who had tested positive for COVID-19, before vaccination, between June and December 2020. The samples were categorized based on their ability to block or enhance infection using in vitro assays. Mass spectrometry and ELISA experiments were used to identify and measure the abundance of proteins that specifically bind to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. IgA specific to SARS-CoV-2 antigens was detectable in over 83% of the convalescent saliva samples. We found that concentrations of anti-RBD IgA >500 pg/µg total protein in saliva correlates with reduced viral infectivity in vitro. However, there is a dissociation between the salivary IgA response to SARS-CoV-2, and systemic IgG titres in convalescent COVID19 patients. Then, using an innovative technique known as spike-baited mass spectrometry, we identified novel spike-binding proteins in saliva, most notably vimentin, which correlated with increased viral infectivity in vitro, could serve as a therapeutic target against COVID-19.

Type: Article
Title: Salivary IgA and vimentin differentiate in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection: a study of 290 convalescent COVID-19 patients
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.mucimm.2023.11.007.
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mucimm.2023.11.007
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; healthcare workers; IgA; IgG; vimentin
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10182174
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