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Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Extravasation in Brain Metastasis of Breast Cancer, Melanoma, and Lung Cancer

Alsabbagh, Rama; Ahmed, Munazza; Alqudah, Mohammad AY; Hamoudi, Rifat; Harati, Rania; (2023) Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Extravasation in Brain Metastasis of Breast Cancer, Melanoma, and Lung Cancer. Cancers , 15 (8) , Article 2258. 10.3390/cancers15082258. Green open access

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Abstract

Brain metastasis is an incurable end-stage of systemic cancer associated with poor prognosis, and its incidence is increasing. Brain metastasis occurs through a multi-step cascade where cancer cells spread from the primary tumor site to the brain. The extravasation of tumor cells through the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a critical step in brain metastasis. During extravasation, circulating cancer cells roll along the brain endothelium (BE), adhere to it, then induce alterations in the endothelial barrier to transmigrate through the BBB and enter the brain. Rolling and adhesion are generally mediated by selectins and adhesion molecules induced by inflammatory mediators, while alterations in the endothelial barrier are mediated by proteolytic enzymes, including matrix metalloproteinase, and the transmigration step mediated by factors, including chemokines. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating extravasation are not yet fully understood. A better understanding of these mechanisms is essential as it may serve as the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies for the prevention or treatment of brain metastases. In this review, we summarize the molecular events that occur during the extravasation of cancer cells through the blood–brain barrier in three types of cancer most likely to develop brain metastasis: breast cancer, melanoma, and lung cancer. Common molecular mechanisms driving extravasation in these different tumors are discussed.

Type: Article
Title: Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Extravasation in Brain Metastasis of Breast Cancer, Melanoma, and Lung Cancer
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/cancers15082258
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15082258
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Oncology, brain metastasis, molecular mechanisms, lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, TO-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION, TRANSENDOTHELIAL MIGRATION, PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATION, BARRIER PERMEABILITY, EXTRACELLULAR S100A4, CELL PROLIFERATION, ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS, PROMOTES, SUPPRESSES, HEPARANASE
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10181633
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