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Individual participant data systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessing adult mindfulness-based programmes for mental health promotion in non-clinical settings

Galante, Julieta; Friedrich, Claire; Collaboration of Mindfulness Trials (CoMinT) 3; Dalgleish, Tim; Jones, Peter B; White, Ian R; Collaboration of Mindfulness Trials (CoMinT); (2023) Individual participant data systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessing adult mindfulness-based programmes for mental health promotion in non-clinical settings. Nature Mental Health , 1 (7) pp. 462-476. 10.1038/s44220-023-00081-5. Green open access

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Mindfulness-based programmes (MBPs) are widely used to prevent mental ill-health that is becoming the leading global cause of morbidity. Evidence suggests beneficial average effects but wide variability. We aimed to confirm the effect of MBPs on psychological distress, and to understand whether and how baseline distress, gender, age, education, and dispositional mindfulness modify the effect of MBPs on distress among adults in non-clinical settings. METHODS: We conducted a pre-registered systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis (PROSPERO CRD42020200117). Thirteen databases were searched in December 2020 for randomised controlled trials satisfying a quality threshold and comparing in-person, expert-defined MBPs in non-clinical settings with passive control groups. Two researchers independently selected, extracted, and appraised trials using the revised Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool (RoB2). Anonymised IPD of eligible trials were sought from collaborating authors. The primary outcome was psychological distress (unpleasant mental or emotional experiences including anxiety and depression) at 1 to 6 months after programme completion. Data were checked and imputed if missing. Pairwise, random-effects, two-stage IPD meta-analyses were conducted. Effect modification analyses followed a within-studies approach. Public and professional stakeholders were involved in the planning, conduct and dissemination of this study. RESULTS: Fifteen trials were eligible, 13 trialists shared IPD (2,371 participants representing 8 countries, median age 34 years-old, 71% women, moderately distressed on average, 20% missing outcome data). In comparison with passive control groups, MBPs reduced average distress between one- and six-months post-intervention with a small to moderate effect size (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.41 to -0.24; p-value < 0.001; 95% prediction interval (PI) -0.41 to -0.24 (no heterogeneity)). Results were robust to sensitivity analyses, and similar for the other psychological distress time point ranges. Confidence in the primary outcome result is high. We found no clear indication that this effect is modified by baseline psychological distress, gender, age, education level, or dispositional mindfulness. CONCLUSIONS: Group-based teacher-led MBPs generally reduce psychological distress among community adults who volunteer to receive this type of intervention. More research is needed to identify sources of variability in outcomes at an individual level.

Type: Article
Title: Individual participant data systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessing adult mindfulness-based programmes for mental health promotion in non-clinical settings
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s44220-023-00081-5
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1038/s44220-023-00081-5
Language: English
Additional information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: Collaboration of Mindfulness Trials (CoMinT) 3, Collaboration of Mindfulness Trials (CoMinT)
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology > MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10180317
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