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Accelerated DNA methylation age plays a role in the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on the human heart

Topriceanu, Constantin-Cristian; Dev, Eesha; Ahmad, Mahmood; Hughes, Rebecca; Shiwani, Hunain; Webber, Matthew; Direk, Kenan; ... Captur, Gabriella; + view all (2023) Accelerated DNA methylation age plays a role in the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on the human heart. Clinical Epigenetics , 15 , Article 164. 10.1186/s13148-023-01576-9. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) age acceleration (AgeAccel) and cardiac age by 12-lead advanced electrocardiography (A-ECG) are promising biomarkers of biological and cardiac aging, respectively. We aimed to explore the relationships between DNAm age and A-ECG heart age and to understand the extent to which DNAm AgeAccel relates to cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in a British birth cohort from 1946. RESULTS: We studied four DNAm ages (AgeHannum, AgeHorvath, PhenoAge, and GrimAge) and their corresponding AgeAccel. Outcomes were the results from two publicly available ECG-based cardiac age scores: the Bayesian A-ECG-based heart age score of Lindow et al. 2022 and the deep neural network (DNN) ECG-based heart age score of Ribeiro et al. 2020. DNAm AgeAccel was also studied relative to results from two logistic regression-based A-ECG disease scores, one for left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (LVSD), and one for LV electrical remodeling (LVER). Generalized linear models were used to explore the extent to which any associations between biological cardiometabolic risk factors (body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, previous cardiovascular disease [CVD], and any CV risk factor) and the ECG-based outcomes are mediated by DNAm AgeAccel. We derived the total effects, average causal mediation effects (ACMEs), average direct effects (ADEs), and the proportion mediated [PM] with their 95% confidence intervals [CIs]. 498 participants (all 60-64 years) were included, with the youngest ECG heart age being 27 and the oldest 90. When exploring the associations between cardiometabolic risk factors and Bayesian A-ECG cardiac age, AgeAccelPheno appears to be a partial mediator, as ACME was 0.23 years [0.01, 0.52] p = 0.028 (i.e., PM≈18%) for diabetes, 0.34 [0.03, 0.74] p = 0.024 (i.e., PM≈15%) for high cholesterol, and 0.34 [0.03, 0.74] p = 0.024 (PM≈15%) for any CV risk factor. Similarly, AgeAccelGrim mediates ≈30% of the relationship between diabetes or high cholesterol and the DNN ECG-based heart age. When exploring the link between cardiometabolic risk factors and the A-ECG-based LVSD and LVER scores, it appears that AgeAccelPheno or AgeAccelGrim mediate 10-40% of these associations. CONCLUSION: By the age of 60, participants with accelerated DNA methylation appear to have older, weaker, and more electrically impaired hearts. We show that the harmful effects of CV risk factors on cardiac age and health, appear to be partially mediated by DNAm AgeAccelPheno and AgeAccelGrim. This highlights the need to further investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of selective DNA methyltransferases modulators.

Type: Article
Title: Accelerated DNA methylation age plays a role in the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on the human heart
Location: Germany
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s13148-023-01576-9
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-023-01576-9
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Advanced electrocardiography, Aging, DNA methylation age, Humans, Infant, DNA Methylation, Cardiovascular Diseases, Bayes Theorem, Risk Factors, Aging, Heart Disease Risk Factors, Diabetes Mellitus, Cholesterol, Epigenesis, Genetic
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine > MRC Unit for Lifelong Hlth and Ageing
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10179647
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