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Blood DNA methylation signature of diet quality, and association with cardiometabolic traits

Domínguez-Barragán, Jorge; Fernández-Sanlés, Alba; Hernáez, Álvaro; Llauradó-Pont, Joana; Marrugat, Jaume; Robinson, Oliver; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; ... Lassale, Camille; + view all (2023) Blood DNA methylation signature of diet quality, and association with cardiometabolic traits. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology , Article zwad317. 10.1093/eurjpc/zwad317. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diet quality might influence cardiometabolic health through epigenetic changes, but this has been little investigated in adults. Our aim was to identify Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) dinucleotides associated with diet quality by conducting an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) based on blood DNA methylation (DNAm), and to assess how diet-related CpGs associate with inherited susceptibility to cardiometabolic traits: body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Meta-EWAS including 5,274 participants in four cohorts from Spain, the US and the UK. We derived three dietary scores (exposures) to measure adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MMDS), to a healthy plant-based diet (HPDI) and to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). Blood DNAm (outcome) was assessed with the Infinium arrays Human Methylation 450 K BeadChip and MethylationEPIC BeadChip. For each diet score, we performed linear EWAS adjusted for age, sex, blood cells, smoking and technical variables, and BMI in a second set of models. We also conducted Mendelian randomization analyses to assess the potential causal relationship between diet-related CpGs and cardiometabolic traits. RESULTS: We found 18 differentially methylated CpGs associated with dietary scores (p-value < 1.08 × 10-7; Bonferroni correction), of which 12 were previously associated with cardiometabolic traits. Enrichment analysis revealed overrepresentation of diet-associated genes in pathways involved in inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that genetically determined methylation levels corresponding to lower diet quality at cg02079413 (SNORA54), cg02107842 (MAST4), and cg23761815 (SLC29A3) were causally associated with higher BMI, and at cg05399785 (WDR8) with greater SBP; and methylation levels associated with higher diet quality at cg00711496 (PRMT1) with lower BMI, T2D risk and CHD risk, and at cg0557921 (AHRR) with lower CHD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality in adults was related to differential methylation in blood at 18 CpGs, some of which related to cardiometabolic health.Availability: The R code for the analysis is available in the following Github repository: https://github.com/jorgedb98/B64_DIAMETR.git.

Type: Article
Title: Blood DNA methylation signature of diet quality, and association with cardiometabolic traits
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/eurjpc/zwad317
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwad317
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, DNA methylation, Diet quality, Epidemiology, Nutrition
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine > MRC Unit for Lifelong Hlth and Ageing
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10179587
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