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TOI-1416: A system with a super-Earth planet with a 1.07 d period

Deeg, HJ; Georgieva, IY; Nowak, G; Persson, CM; Cale, BL; Murgas, F; Pallé, E; ... Ziegler, C; + view all (2023) TOI-1416: A system with a super-Earth planet with a 1.07 d period. Astronomy & Astrophysics , 677 , Article A12. 10.1051/0004-6361/202346370. Green open access

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Abstract

TOI-1416 (BD+42 2504, HIP 70705) is a V =10 late G- or early K-type dwarf star. TESS detected transits in its Sectors 16, 23, and 50 with a depth of about 455 ppm and a period of 1.07 days. Radial velocities (RVs) confirm the presence of the transiting planet TOI-1416 b, which has a mass of 3.48 ± 0.47 M• and a radius of 1.62 ± 0.08 R•, implying a slightly sub-Earth density of 4.500.83+0.99 g cm3. The RV data also further indicate a tentative planet, c, with a period of 27.4 or 29.5 days, whose nature cannot be verified due to strong suspicions of contamination by a signal related to the Moon s synodic period of 29.53 days. The nearly ultra-short-period planet TOI-1416 b is a typical representative of a short-period and hot (Teq ≈ 1570 K) super-Earth-like planet. A planet model of an interior of molten magma containing a significant fraction of dissolved water provides a plausible explanation for its composition, and its atmosphere could be suitable for transmission spectroscopy with JWST. The position of TOI-1416 b within the radius-period distribution corroborates the idea that planets with periods of less than one day do not form any special group. It instead implies that ultra-short-period planets belong to a continuous distribution of super-Earth-like planets with periods ranging from the shortest known ones up to ≈ 30 days; their period-radius distribution is delimited against larger radii by the Neptune Desert and by the period-radius valley that separates super-Earths from sub-Neptune planets. In the abundance of small, short-periodic planets, a notable plateau has emerged between periods of 0.6- 1.4 days, which is compatible with the low-eccentricity formation channel. For the Neptune Desert, its lower limits required a revision due to the increasing population of short-period planets; for periods shorter then 2 days, we establish a radius of 1.6 R• and a mass of 0.028 Mjup (corresponding to 8.9 M•) as the desert s lower limits. We also provide corresponding limits to the Neptune Desert against the planets insolation and effective temperatures.

Type: Article
Title: TOI-1416: A system with a super-Earth planet with a 1.07 d period
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202346370
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202346370
Language: English
Additional information: © The Authors 2023. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0).
Keywords: planets and satellites: individual: TOI-1416 b, planets and satellites: detection, planets and satellites: terrestrial planets, planetary systems, planets and satellites: composition, techniques: radial velocities
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Space and Climate Physics
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10177859
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