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Base-Edited CAR7 T Cells for Relapsed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Chiesa, Robert; Georgiadis, Christos; Syed, Farhatullah; Zhan, Hong; Etuk, Annie; Gkazi, Soragia Athina; Preece, Roland; ... Base-Edited, CAR T Group; + view all (2023) Base-Edited CAR7 T Cells for Relapsed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine , 389 pp. 899-910. 10.1056/NEJMoa2300709. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cytidine deamination that is guided by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) can mediate a highly precise conversion of one nucleotide into another - specifically, cytosine to thymine - without generating breaks in DNA. Thus, genes can be base-edited and rendered inactive without inducing translocations and other chromosomal aberrations. The use of this technique in patients with relapsed childhood T-cell leukemia is being investigated. METHODS: We used base editing to generate universal, off-the-shelf chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. Healthy volunteer donor T cells were transduced with the use of a lentivirus to express a CAR with specificity for CD7 (CAR7), a protein that is expressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We then used base editing to inactivate three genes encoding CD52 and CD7 receptors and the β chain of the αβ T-cell receptor to evade lymphodepleting serotherapy, CAR7 T-cell fratricide, and graft-versus-host disease, respectively. We investigated the safety of these edited cells in three children with relapsed leukemia. RESULTS: The first patient, a 13-year-old girl who had relapsed T-cell ALL after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, had molecular remission within 28 days after infusion of a single dose of base-edited CAR7 (BE-CAR7). She then received a reduced-intensity (nonmyeloablative) allogeneic stem-cell transplant from her original donor, with successful immunologic reconstitution and ongoing leukemic remission. BE-CAR7 cells from the same bank showed potent activity in two other patients, and although fatal fungal complications developed in one patient, the other patient underwent allogeneic stem-cell transplantation while in remission. Serious adverse events included cytokine release syndrome, multilineage cytopenia, and opportunistic infections. CONCLUSIONS: The interim results of this phase 1 study support further investigation of base-edited T cells for patients with relapsed leukemia and indicate the anticipated risks of immunotherapy-related complications. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and others; ISRCTN number, ISRCTN15323014.).

Type: Article
Title: Base-Edited CAR7 T Cells for Relapsed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2300709
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2300709
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the version of record. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10176251
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