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Deep Ocular Phenotyping Across Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Genetic Burden

Sekimitsu, Sayuri; Xiang, David; Smith, Sophie Lloyd; Curran, Katie; Elze, Tobias; Friedman, David S; Foster, Paul J; ... UK Biobank Eye and Vision Consortium; + view all (2023) Deep Ocular Phenotyping Across Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Genetic Burden. JAMA Ophthalmology 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2023.3645. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Better understanding of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) genetics could enable timely screening and promote individualized disease risk prognostication. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate phenotypic features across genetic burden for POAG. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted from 2006 to 2010. Included participants were individuals from the UK Biobank aged 40 to 69 years. Individuals with non-POAG forms of glaucoma were excluded from the analysis. Data were statistically analyzed from October 2022 to January 2023. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: POAG prevalence based on structural coding, self-reports, and glaucoma-related traits. RESULTS: Among 407 667 participants (mean [SD] age, 56.3 [8.1] years; 219 183 majority sex [53.8%]) were 14 171 POAG cases. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve for POAG detection was 0.748 in a model including polygenic risk score (PRS), age, sex, and ancestry. POAG prevalence in the highest decile of PRS was 7.4% (3005 of 40 644) vs 1.3% (544 of 40 795) in lowest decile (P < .001). A 1-SD increase in PRS was associated with 1.74 times higher odds of POAG (95% CI, 1.71-1.77), a 0.61-mm Hg increase in corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOP; 95% CI, 0.59-0.64), a -0.09-mm Hg decrease in corneal hysteresis (95% CI, -0.10 to -0.08), a 0.08-mm Hg increase in corneal resistance factor (95% CI, 0.06-0.09), and a -0.08-diopter decrease in spherical equivalent (95% CI, -0.11 to -0.07; P < .001 for all). A 1-SD increase in PRS was associated with a thinning of the macula-region retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL) of 0.14 μm and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) of 0.26 μm (P < .001 for both). In the subset of individuals with fundus photographs, a 1-SD increase in PRS was associated with 1.42 times higher odds of suspicious optic disc features (95% CI, 1.19-1.69) and a 0.013 increase in cup-disc ratio (CDR; 95% CI, 0.012-0.014; P < .001 for both). A total of 22 of 5193 fundus photographs (0.4%) in decile 10 had disc hemorrhages, and 27 of 5257 (0.5%) had suspicious optic disc features compared with 9 of 5158 (0.2%) and 10 of 5219 (0.2%), respectively, in decile 1 (P < .001 for both). CDR in decile 10 was 0.46 compared with 0.41 in decile 1 (P < .001). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Results suggest that PRS identified a group of individuals at substantially higher risk for POAG. Higher genetic risk was associated with more advanced disease, namely higher CDR and corneal-compensated IOP, thinner mRNFL, and thinner GCC. Associations with POAG PRS and corneal hysteresis and greater prevalence of disc hemorrhages were identified. These results suggest that genetic risk is an increasingly important parameter for risk stratification to consider in clinical practice.

Type: Article
Title: Deep Ocular Phenotyping Across Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Genetic Burden
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2023.3645
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2023.3645
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Ophthalmology, FIBER LAYER THICKNESS, CORNEAL HYSTERESIS, RISK-FACTOR, CLASSIFICATION, ASSOCIATION, PROGRESSION, ACCURACY, DISEASES, DAMAGE, CODES
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Ophthalmology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10176138
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