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Increasing rhinovirus prevalence in paediatric intensive care patients since the SARS-CoV2 pandemic

Gil, E; Roy, S; Best, T; Hatcher, J; Breuer, J; (2023) Increasing rhinovirus prevalence in paediatric intensive care patients since the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. Journal of Clinical Virology , 166 , Article 105555. 10.1016/j.jcv.2023.105555. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Rhinovirus (HRV) is a significant seasonal pathogen in children. The emergence of SARS-CoV2, and the social restrictions introduced in, disrupted viral epidemiology. Here we describe the experience of Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), where HRV almost entirely disappeared from the paediatric intensive care units (PICU) during the first national lockdown and then rapidly re-emerged with a fast-increasing incidence, leading to concerns about possible nosocomial transmission in a vulnerable population. Objectives: To describe alterations in HRV infection amongst PICU patients at GOSH since the emergence of SARS-COV2 Study Design: 10,950 nasopharyngeal aspirate viral PCR samples from GOSH PICU patients from 2019 to 2023 were included. 3083 returned a positive result for a respiratory virus, with 1530 samples positive for HRV. 66 HRV isolates from August 2020 – Jan 2021, the period of rapidly increasing HRV incidence, were sequenced. Electronic health record data was retrospectively collected for the same period. Results: Following a reduction in the incidence of HRV infection during the first national lockdown, multiple genotypes of HRV emerged amongst GOSH PICU patients, with the incidence of HRV infection rapidly surging to levels higher than that seen prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV2 and continuing to circulate at increased incidence year-round. Conclusions: The incidence of HRV infection amongst GOSH PICU patients is markedly higher than prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV2, a pattern not seen in other respiratory viruses. The increased burden of HRV-infection in vulnerable PICU patients has both clinical and infection prevention and control Implications.

Type: Article
Title: Increasing rhinovirus prevalence in paediatric intensive care patients since the SARS-CoV2 pandemic
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2023.105555
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2023.105555
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Rhinovirus, SARS-CoV2, Respiratory virus, Paediatric infection
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Genetics and Genomic Medicine Dept
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10175148
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