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The Neonatal and Paediatric Pharmacokinetics of Antimicrobials study (NAPPA): investigating amoxicillin, benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and piperacillin pharmacokinetics from birth to adolescence

Barker, Charlotte IS; Kipper, Karin; Lonsdale, Dagan O; Wright, Kirstie; Thompson, Georgina; Kim, Min; Turner, Mark A; ... NAPPA Study Consortium, .; + view all (2023) The Neonatal and Paediatric Pharmacokinetics of Antimicrobials study (NAPPA): investigating amoxicillin, benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and piperacillin pharmacokinetics from birth to adolescence. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy , Article dkad196. 10.1093/jac/dkad196. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Pharmacokinetic (PK) data underlying paediatric penicillin dosing remain limited, especially in critical care.// Objectives: The primary objective of the Neonatal and Paediatric Pharmacokinetics of Antimicrobials study (NAPPA) was to characterize PK profiles of commonly used penicillins using data obtained during routine care, to further understanding of PK variability and inform future evidence-based dosing.// Methods: NAPPA was a multicentre study of amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Patients were recruited with informed consent. Antibiotic dosing followed standard of care. PK samples were obtained opportunistically or at optimal times, frozen and analysed using UPLC with tandem MS. Pharmacometric analysis was undertaken using NONMEM software (v7.3). Model-based simulations (n = 10 000) tested PTA with British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) and WHO dosing. The study had ethical approval.// Results: For the combined IV PK model, 963 PK samples from 370 participants were analysed simultaneously incorporating amoxicillin, benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and piperacillin data. BNFC high-dose regimen simulations gave these PTA results (median fT>MIC at breakpoints of specified pathogens): amoxicillin 100% (Streptococcus pneumoniae); benzylpenicillin 100% (Group B Streptococcus); flucloxacillin 48% (MSSA); and piperacillin 100% (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Oral population PK models for flucloxacillin and amoxicillin enabled estimation of first-order absorption rate constants (1.16 h−1 and 1.3 h−1) and bioavailability terms (62.7% and 58.7%, respectively).// Conclusions: NAPPA represents, to our knowledge, the largest prospective combined paediatric penicillin PK study undertaken to date, and the first paediatric flucloxacillin oral PK model. The PTA results provide evidence supportive of BNFC high-dose IV regimens for amoxicillin, benzylpenicillin and piperacillin.

Type: Article
Title: The Neonatal and Paediatric Pharmacokinetics of Antimicrobials study (NAPPA): investigating amoxicillin, benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and piperacillin pharmacokinetics from birth to adolescence
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkad196
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkad196
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10174792
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