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Postpandemic rebound of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) infections temporally associated with an outbreak of unexplained severe acute hepatitis in children in the United Kingdom

Gates, S; Andreani, J; Dewar, R; Smith, DB; Templeton, K; Child, HT; Breuer, J; ... Harvala, H; + view all (2023) Postpandemic rebound of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) infections temporally associated with an outbreak of unexplained severe acute hepatitis in children in the United Kingdom. Journal of Medical Virology , 95 (7) , Article e28921. 10.1002/jmv.28921. Green open access

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Abstract

Over 1000 cases of unexplained severe acute hepatitis in children have been reported to date worldwide. An association with adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) infection, a human parvovirus, prompted us to investigate the epidemiology of AAV in the United Kingdom. Three hundred pediatric respiratory samples collected before (April 03, 2009–April 03, 2013) and during (April 03, 2022) the COVID-19 pandemic were obtained. Wastewater samples were collected from 50 locations in London (August 2021–March 2022). Samples were tested for AAV using real-time polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing. Selected adenovirus (AdV)-positive samples were also sequenced. The detection frequency of AAV2 was a sevenfold higher in 2022 samples compared with 2009–2013 samples (10% vs. 1.4%) and highest in AdV-positive samples compared with negatives (10/37, 27% vs. 5/94, 5.3%, respectively). AAV2-positive samples displayed high genetic diversity. AAV2 sequences were either very low or absent in wastewater collected in 2021 but increased in January 2022 and peaked in March 2022. AAV2 was detected in children in association with AdV of species C, with a highest frequency in 2022. Our findings are consistent with the expansion of the population of children unexposed to AAV2, leading to greater spread of the virus once distancing restrictions were lifted.

Type: Article
Title: Postpandemic rebound of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) infections temporally associated with an outbreak of unexplained severe acute hepatitis in children in the United Kingdom
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1002/jmv.28921
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.28921
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: AAV2, adeno-associated virus, adenovirus, epidemiology, parvovirus, rebound, unexplained hepatitis, Humans, Child, Dependovirus, Pandemics, Wastewater, COVID-19, Adenoviridae, Adenoviridae Infections, Hepatitis
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10174465
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