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Formulae for generating standard and individual human cone spectral sensitivities

Stockman, Andrew; Rider, Andrew T; (2023) Formulae for generating standard and individual human cone spectral sensitivities. Color Research & Application 10.1002/col.22879. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Normal color perception is complicated. But at its initial stage it is relatively simple, since at photopic levels it depends on the activations of just three photoreceptor types: the long- (L-), middle- (M-) and short- (S-) wavelength-sensitive cones. Knowledge of how each type responds to different wavelengths—the three cone spectral sensitivities—can be used to model human color vision and in practical applications to specify color and predict color matches. The CIE has sanctioned the cone spectral sensitivity estimates of Stockman and Sharpe (Stockman and Sharpe, 2000, Vision Res) and their associated measures of luminous efficiency as “physiologically-relevant” standards for color vision (CIE, 2006; 2015). These LMS cone spectral sensitivities are specified at 5- and 1-nm steps for mean “standard” observers with normal cone photopigments and average ocular transparencies, both of which can vary in the population. Here, we provide formulae for the three cone spectral sensitivities as well as for macular and lens pigment density spectra, all as continuous functions of wavelength from 360 to 850 nm. These functions reproduce the tabulated discrete CIE LMS cone spectral sensitivities for 2-deg and 10-deg with little error in both linear and logarithmic units. Furthermore, these formulae allow the easy computation of non-standard cone spectral sensitivities (and other color matching functions) with individual differences in macular, lens and photopigment optical densities, and with spectrally shifted hybrid or polymorphic L- and M-cone photopigments appropriate for either normal or red-green color vision deficient observers.

Type: Article
Title: Formulae for generating standard and individual human cone spectral sensitivities
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1002/col.22879
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1002/col.22879
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Color Research and Application published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: CIE standards, color matching functions, cone fundamentals, cone spectral sensitivity functions, individual differences
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Ophthalmology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10174051
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