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Extracorporeal liver support and liver transplantation for acute-on-chronic liver failure

Ballester, Maria Pilar; Elshabrawi, Ahmed; Jalan, Rajiv; (2023) Extracorporeal liver support and liver transplantation for acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver International 10.1111/liv.15647. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is defined by acute decompensation, organ failure and a high risk of short-term mortality. This condition is characterized by an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response. Despite treating the precipitating event, intensive monitoring and organ support, clinical deterioration can occur with very poor outcomes. During the last decades, several extracorporeal liver support systems have been developed to try to reduce ongoing liver injury and provide an improved environment for the liver to regenerate or as a bridging therapy until liver transplantation. Several clinical trials have been performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of extracorporeal liver support systems, but no clear impact on survival has been proven. DIALIVE is a novel extracorporeal liver support device that has been built to specifically address the pathophysiological derangements responsible for the development of ACLF by replacing dysfunctional albumin and removing pathogen and damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs). In phase II clinical trial, DIALIVE appears to be safe, and it seems to be associated with a faster time to the resolution of ACLF compared with standard medical treatment. Even in patients with severe ACLF, liver transplantation saves lives and there is clear evidence of transplant benefit. Careful selection of patients is required to attain good results from liver transplantation, but many questions remain unanswered. In this review, we describe the current perspectives on the use of extracorporeal liver support and liver transplantation for ACLF patients.

Type: Article
Title: Extracorporeal liver support and liver transplantation for acute-on-chronic liver failure
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/liv.15647
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.15647
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 The Authors. Liver International published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Keywords: acute-on-chronic liver failure liver support systems liver transplantation
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inst for Liver and Digestive Hlth
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10173879
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