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Cardiopulmonary exercise testing before and after intravenous iron in preoperative patients: a prospective clinical study

Plumb, James OM; Otto, James M; Kumar, Shriya B; Bali, Sitara; Wakatsuki, Mai; Schmidt, Walter FJ; Montgomery, Hugh E; ... Levett, Denny Z; + view all (2023) Cardiopulmonary exercise testing before and after intravenous iron in preoperative patients: a prospective clinical study. Perioperative Medicine , 12 , Article 31. 10.1186/s13741-023-00319-x. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Anemia is associated with impaired physical performance and adverse perioperative outcomes. Iron-deficiency anemia is increasingly treated with intravenous iron before elective surgery. We explored the relationship between exercise capacity, anemia, and total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass) and the response to intravenous iron in anemic patients prior to surgery.// Methods: A prospective clinical study was undertaken in patients having routine cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) with a hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) < 130 g.l⁻¹ and iron deficiency/depletion. Patients underwent CPET and tHb-mass measurements before and a minimum of 14 days after receiving intravenous (i.v.) Ferric derisomaltose (Monofer®) at the baseline visit. Comparative analysis of hematological and CPET variables was performed pre and post-iron treatment.// Results: Twenty-six subjects were recruited, of whom 6 withdrew prior to study completion. The remaining 20 (9 [45%] male; mean ± SD age 68 ± 10 years) were assessed 25 ± 7 days between baseline and the final visit. Following i.v. iron, increases were seen in [Hb] (mean ± SD) from 109 ± 14 to 116 ± 12 g l⁻¹ (mean rise 6.4% or 7.3 g l⁻¹, p =  < 0.0001, 95% CI 4.5–10.1); tHb-mass from 497 ± 134 to 546 ± 139 g (mean rise 9.3% or 49 g, p =  < 0.0001, 95% CI 29.4–69.2). Oxygen consumption at anerobic threshold (V˙O2 AT) did not change (9.1 ± 1.7 to 9.8 ± 2.5 ml kg⁻¹ min⁻¹, p = 0.09, 95% CI − 0.13 − 1.3). Peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2 peak) increased from 15.2 ± 4.1 to 16 ± 4.4 ml.kg.⁻¹ min⁻¹, p = 0.02, 95% CI 0.2–1.8) and peak work rate increased from 93 [67–112] watts to 96 [68–122] watts (p = 0.02, 95% CI 1.3–10.8).// Conclusion: Preoperative administration of intravenous iron to iron-deficient/deplete anemic patients is associated with increases in [Hb], tHb-mass, peak oxygen consumption, and peak work rate. Further appropriately powered prospective studies are required to ascertain whether improvements in tHb-mass and performance in turn lead to reductions in perioperative morbidity.

Type: Article
Title: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing before and after intravenous iron in preoperative patients: a prospective clinical study
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s13741-023-00319-x
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13741-023-00319-x
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: Anemia, Intravenous iron, Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, CPET, Total hemoglobin mass, tHb-mass, Surgery
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Experimental and Translational Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10173864
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