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Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of maralixibat in adults with primary sclerosing cholangitis: Open-label pilot study

Bowlus, Christopher L; Eksteen, Bertus; Cheung, Angela C; Thorburn, Douglas; Moylan, Cynthia A; Pockros, Paul J; Forman, Lisa M; ... Levy, Cynthia; + view all (2023) Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of maralixibat in adults with primary sclerosing cholangitis: Open-label pilot study. Hepatology Communications , 7 (6) , Article e0153. 10.1097/HC9.0000000000000153. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is frequently associated with pruritus, which significantly impairs quality of life. Maralixibat is a selective ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) inhibitor that lowers circulating bile acid (BA) levels and reduces pruritus in cholestatic liver diseases. This is the first proof-of-concept study of IBAT inhibition in PSC. METHODS: This open-label study evaluated the safety and tolerability of maralixibat ≤10 mg/d for 14 weeks in adults with PSC. Measures of pruritus, biomarkers of BA synthesis, cholestasis, and liver function were also assessed. RESULTS: Of 27 enrolled participants, 85.2% completed treatment. Gastrointestinal treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 81.5%, with diarrhea in 51.9%. TEAEs were mostly mild or moderate (63.0%); 1 serious TEAE (cholangitis) was considered treatment related. Mean serum BA (sBA) levels decreased by 16.7% (-14.84 µmol/L; 95% CI, -27.25 to -2.43; p = 0.0043) by week 14/early termination (ET). In participants with baseline sBA levels above normal (n = 18), mean sBA decreased by 40.0% (-22.3 µmol/L, 95% CI, -40.38 to -4.3; p = 0.004) by week 14/ET. Liver enzyme elevations were not significant; however, increases of unknown clinical significance in conjugated bilirubin levels were observed. ItchRO weekly sum scores decreased from baseline to week 14/ET by 8.4% (p = 0.0495), by 12.6% (p = 0.0275) in 18 participants with pruritus at baseline, and by 70% (p = 0.0078) in 8 participants with ItchRO daily average score ≥3 at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Maralixibat was associated with reduced sBA levels in adults with PSC. In participants with more severe baseline pruritus, pruritus improved significantly from baseline. TEAEs were mostly gastrointestinal related. These results support further investigation of IBAT inhibitors for adults with PSC-associated pruritus. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02061540.

Type: Article
Title: Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of maralixibat in adults with primary sclerosing cholangitis: Open-label pilot study
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1097/HC9.0000000000000153
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1097/HC9.0000000000000153
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10173733
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