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Microstructural and Microvascular Phenotype of Sarcomere Mutation Carriers and Overt Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Joy, George; Kelly, Christopher I; Webber, Matthew; Pierce, Iain; Teh, Irvin; McGrath, Louise; Velazquez, Paula; ... Lopes, Luis R; + view all (2023) Microstructural and Microvascular Phenotype of Sarcomere Mutation Carriers and Overt Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Circulation 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.123.063835. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), myocyte disarray and microvascular disease (MVD) have been implicated in adverse events, and recent evidence suggests that these may occur early. As novel therapy provides promise for disease modification, detection of phenotype development is an emerging priority. To evaluate their utility as early and disease-specific biomarkers, we measured myocardial microstructure and MVD in 3 HCM groups-overt, either genotype-positive (G+LVH+) or genotype-negative (G-LVH+), and subclinical (G+LVH-) HCM-exploring relationships with electrical changes and genetic substrate. METHODS: This was a multicenter collaboration to study 206 subjects: 101 patients with overt HCM (51 G+LVH+ and 50 G-LVH+), 77 patients with G+LVH-, and 28 matched healthy volunteers. All underwent 12-lead ECG, quantitative perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (measuring myocardial blood flow, myocardial perfusion reserve, and perfusion defects), and cardiac diffusion tensor imaging measuring fractional anisotropy (lower values expected with more disarray), mean diffusivity (reflecting myocyte packing/interstitial expansion), and second eigenvector angle (measuring sheetlet orientation). RESULTS: Compared with healthy volunteers, patients with overt HCM had evidence of altered microstructure (lower fractional anisotropy, higher mean diffusivity, and higher second eigenvector angle; all P<0.001) and MVD (lower stress myocardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion reserve; both P<0.001). Patients with G-LVH+ were similar to those with G+LVH+ but had elevated second eigenvector angle (P<0.001 after adjustment for left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis). In overt disease, perfusion defects were found in all G+ but not all G- patients (100% [51/51] versus 82% [41/50]; P=0.001). Patients with G+LVH- compared with healthy volunteers similarly had altered microstructure, although to a lesser extent (all diffusion tensor imaging parameters; P<0.001), and MVD (reduced stress myocardial blood flow [P=0.015] with perfusion defects in 28% versus 0 healthy volunteers [P=0.002]). Disarray and MVD were independently associated with pathological electrocardiographic abnormalities in both overt and subclinical disease after adjustment for fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy (overt: fractional anisotropy: odds ratio for an abnormal ECG, 3.3, P=0.01; stress myocardial blood flow: odds ratio, 2.8, P=0.015; subclinical: fractional anisotropy odds ratio, 4.0, P=0.001; myocardial perfusion reserve odds ratio, 2.2, P=0.049). CONCLUSIONS: Microstructural alteration and MVD occur in overt HCM and are different in G+ and G- patients. Both also occur in the absence of hypertrophy in sarcomeric mutation carriers, in whom changes are associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities. Measurable changes in myocardial microstructure and microvascular function are early-phenotype biomarkers in the emerging era of disease-modifying therapy.

Type: Article
Title: Microstructural and Microvascular Phenotype of Sarcomere Mutation Carriers and Overt Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.123.063835
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.123.063835
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 The Authors. Circulation is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, perfusion, sarcomeres
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine > MRC Unit for Lifelong Hlth and Ageing
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10173676
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