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Family adversity and health characteristics associated with intimate partner violence in children and parents presenting to health care: a population-based birth cohort study in England

Syed, Shabeer; Gilbert, Ruth; Feder, Gene; Howe, Laura D; Powell, Claire; Howarth, Emma; Deighton, Jessica; (2023) Family adversity and health characteristics associated with intimate partner violence in children and parents presenting to health care: a population-based birth cohort study in England. Lancet Public Health , 8 (7) e520-e534. 10.1016/S2468-2667(23)00119-6. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the clinical characteristics of children and parents affected by intimate partner violence (IPV) presenting in health-care settings. We examined the associations between family adversities, health characteristics, and IPV in children and parents using linked electronic health records (EHRs) from primary and secondary care between 1 year before and 2 years after birth (the first 1000 days). We compared parental health problems in in children and parents with and without recorded IPV. METHODS: We developed a population-based birth cohort of children and parents (aged 14-60 years) in England, comprising linked EHRs from mother-child pairs (with no identified father) and mother-father-child triads. We followed the cohort across general practices (Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD), emergency departments, outpatient visits, hospital admissions, and mortality records. Family adversities included 33 clinical indicators of parental mental health problems, parental substance misuse, adverse family environments, and high-risk child maltreatment-related presentations. Parental health problems included 12 common comorbidities, ranging from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases to chronic pain or digestive diseases. We used adjusted and weighted logistic-regression models to estimate the probability of IPV (per 100 children and parents) associated with each adversity, and period prevalences of parental health problems associated with IPV. FINDINGS: We included 129 948 children and parents, comprising 95 290 (73·3%) mother-father-child triads and 34 658 (26·7%) mother-child pairs only between April 1, 2007, and Jan 29, 2020. An estimated 2689 (2·1%) of 129 948 children and parents (95% CI 2·0-2·3) had recorded IPV and 54 758 (41·2%; 41·5-42·2) had any family adversity between 1 year before and 2 years after birth. All family adversities were significantly associated with IPV. Most parents and children with IPV had recorded adversities (1612 [60·0%] of 2689) before their first IPV recording. The probability of IPV was 0·6 per 100 children and parents (95% CI 0·5-0·6) with no adversity, increasing to 4·4 per 100 children per parents (4·2-4·7) with one adversity, and up to 15·1 per 100 parents and children (13·6-16·5) with three of more adversities. Mothers with IPV had a significantly higher prevalence of both physical (73·4% vs 63·1%, odds ratio [OR] 1·6, 95% CI 1·4-1·8) and mental health problems (58·4% vs 22·2%, OR 4·9, 4·4-5·5) than mothers without IPV. Fathers with IPV had a higher prevalence of mental health problems (17·8% vs 7·1%, OR 2·8, 2·4-3·2) and similar prevalences of physical health problems than those without IPV (29·6% vs 32·4%, OR 0·9, 0·8-1·0). INTERPRETATION: Two in five of the children and parents presenting to health care had recorded parental mental health problems, parental substance misuse, adverse family environments, or high-risk presentations of maltreatment in the first 1000 days. One in 22 children and parents with family adversity also had recorded IPV before age 2 years. Primary and secondary care staff should safely ask about IPV when parents or children present with family adversity or health problems associated with IPV, and respond appropriately. FUNDING: NIHR Policy Research Programme.

Type: Article
Title: Family adversity and health characteristics associated with intimate partner violence in children and parents presenting to health care: a population-based birth cohort study in England
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(23)00119-6
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(23)00119-6
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license
Keywords: Humans, Birth Cohort, Cohort Studies, Parents, England, Intimate Partner Violence, Delivery of Health Care, Substance-Related Disorders
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Population, Policy and Practice Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10172913
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