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The Southern European Atlantic diet and depression risk: a European multicohort study

Carballo-Casla, A; Stefler, D; Ortolá, R; Chen, Y; Kubinova, R; Pajak, A; Malyutina, S; ... Bobak, M; + view all (2023) The Southern European Atlantic diet and depression risk: a European multicohort study. Molecular Psychiatry 10.1038/s41380-023-02125-9. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

The Southern European Atlantic diet (SEAD) is the traditional dietary pattern of north-western Spain and northern Portugal, but it may resemble that of other European countries. The SEAD has been found associated with lower risk for myocardial infarction and mortality. Since dietary patterns may also influence mental health, we examined the association between the SEAD and depression risk in southern, central, eastern, and western European populations. We conducted a prospective analysis of five cohorts (13,297 participants aged 45–92 years, free of depression at baseline): Seniors-ENRICA-1 and Seniors-ENRICA-2 (Spain), HAPIEE (Czechia and Poland), and Whitehall-II (United Kingdom). The SEAD comprised cod, other fresh fish, red meat and pork products, dairy, legumes and vegetables, vegetable soup, potatoes, whole-grain bread, and moderate wine consumption. Depression at follow-up was defined according to presence of depressive symptoms (based on available scales), use of prescribed antidepressants, inpatient admissions, or self-reported diagnosis. Associations were adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary variables. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years (interquartile range 3.4–4.9), there were 1437 new depression cases. Higher adherence to the SEAD was associated with lower depression risk in the pooled sample. Individual food groups showed a similar tendency, albeit non-significant. The fully adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) per 1-standard deviation increment in the SEAD was 0.91 (0.86, 0.96). This association was rather consistent across countries [Spain = 0.86 (0.75, 0.99), Czechia = 0.86 (0.75, 0.99), Poland = 0.97 (0.89, 1.06), United Kingdom = 0.85 (0.75, 0.97); p for interaction = 0.24], and was of similar magnitude as that found for existing healthy dietary patterns. In conclusion, the SEAD was associated with lower depression risk across European populations. This may support the development of mood disorder guidelines for Southern European Atlantic regions based on their traditional diet, and for central, eastern, and western European populations based on the SEAD food groups that are culturally rooted in these places.

Type: Article
Title: The Southern European Atlantic diet and depression risk: a European multicohort study
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41380-023-02125-9
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-023-02125-9
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: Depression, Psychology
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10172777
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