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Physicochemical, Biological, and Antibacterial Properties of Four Bioactive Calcium Silicate-Based Cements

Jang, Yu-Ji; Kim, Yu-Jin; Vu, Huong Thu; Park, Jeong-Hui; Shin, Seong-Jin; Dashnyam, Khandmaa; Knowles, Jonathan C; ... Shin, Ji-Sun; + view all (2023) Physicochemical, Biological, and Antibacterial Properties of Four Bioactive Calcium Silicate-Based Cements. Pharmaceutics , 15 (6) , Article 1701. 10.3390/pharmaceutics15061701. Green open access

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Abstract

Calcium silicate-based cement (CSC) is a pharmaceutical agent that is widely used in dentistry. This bioactive material is used for vital pulp treatment due to its excellent biocompatibility, sealing ability, and antibacterial activity. Its drawbacks include a long setting time and poor maneuverability. Hence, the clinical properties of CSC have recently been improved to decrease its setting time. Despite the widespread clinical usage of CSC, there is no research comparing recently developed CSCs. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the physicochemical, biological, and antibacterial properties of four commercial CSCs: two powder–liquid mix types (RetroMTA® [RETM]; Endocem® MTA Zr [ECZR]) and two premixed types (Well-Root™ PT [WRPT]; Endocem® MTA premixed [ECPR]). Each sample was prepared using circular Teflon molds, and tests were conducted after 24 h of setting. The premixed CSCs exhibited a more uniform and less rough surface, higher flowability, and lower film thickness than the powder–liquid mix CSCs. In the pH test, all CSCs showed values between 11.5 and 12.5. In the biological test, cells exposed to ECZR at a concentration of 25% showed greater cell viability, but none of the samples showed a significant difference at low concentration (p > 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase staining revealed that cells exposed to ECZR underwent more odontoblast differentiation than the cells exposed to the other materials; however, no significant difference was observed at a concentration of 12.5% (p > 0.05). In the antibacterial test, the premixed CSCs showed better results than the powder–liquid mix CSCs, and ECPR yielded the best results, followed by WRPT. In conclusion, the premixed CSCs showed improved physical properties, and of the premixed types, ECPR exhibited the highest antibacterial properties. For biological properties, none of these materials showed significant differences at 12.5% dilution. Therefore, ECPR may be a promising material with high antibacterial activity among the four CSCs, but further investigation is needed for clinical situations.

Type: Article
Title: Physicochemical, Biological, and Antibacterial Properties of Four Bioactive Calcium Silicate-Based Cements
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15061701
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15061701
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: dental cement; premixed cement; commercial pharmaceutical agent; physicochemical properties; biological properties; antibacterial activity
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute > Biomaterials and Tissue Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10171929
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