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T1 Mapping of the Prostate Using Single-Shot T1FLASH: A Clinical Feasibility Study to Optimize Prostate Cancer Assessment

Al-Bourini, O; Seif Amir Hosseini, A; Giganti, F; Balz, J; Heitz, LG; Voit, D; Lotz, J; ... Uhlig, J; + view all (2023) T1 Mapping of the Prostate Using Single-Shot T1FLASH: A Clinical Feasibility Study to Optimize Prostate Cancer Assessment. Investigative Radiology , 58 (6) pp. 380-387. 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000945. Green open access

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Abstract

Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the clinical feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 mapping using T1FLASH for assessment of prostate lesions. Methods Participants with clinical suspicion for prostate cancer (PCa) were prospectively enrolled between October 2021 and April 2022 with multiparametric prostate MRI (mpMRI) acquired on a 3 T scanner. In addition, T1 mapping was accomplished using a single-shot T1FLASH technique with inversion recovery, radial undersampling, and iterative reconstruction. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed on radiologically identified prostate lesions and representative reference regions of the transitional zone (TZ), benign prostate hyperplasia nodules, and peripheral zone (PZ). Mean T1 relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (b = 50/b = 1400 s/mm2) were measured for each ROI. Participants were included in the study if they underwent ultrasound/MRI fusion-guided prostate biopsy for radiologically or clinically suspected PCa. Histological evaluation of biopsy cores served as reference standard, with grading of PCa according to the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP). ISUP grades 2 and above were considered clinically significant PCa for the scope of this study. Histological results of prostate biopsy cores were anatomically mapped to corresponding mpMRI ROIs using biopsy plans. T1 relaxation times and ADC values were compared across prostate regions and ISUP groups. Across different strata, T1 relaxation time, ADC values, and diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve [AUC]) were compared using statistical methods accounting for clustered data. Results Of 67 eligible participants, a total of 40 participants undergoing ultrasound/MRI fusion-guided prostate biopsy were included. Multislice T1 mapping was successfully performed in all participants at a median acquisition time of 2:10 minutes without evident image artifacts. A total of 71 prostate lesions was radiologically identified (TZ 49; PZ 22). Among those, 22 were histologically diagnosed with PCa (ISUP groups 1/2/3/4 in n = 3/15/3/1 cases, respectively). In the TZ, T1 relaxation time was statistically significantly lower for PCa compared with reference regions (P = 0.029) and benign prostate hyperplasia nodules (P < 0.001). Similarly, in the PZ, PCa demonstrated shorter T1 relaxation times versus reference regions (P < 0.001). PCa also showed a trend toward shorter T1 relaxation times (median, 1.40 seconds) compared with radiologically suspicious lesions with benign histology (median, 1.47 seconds), although statistical significance was not reached (P = 0.066). For discrimination of PCa from reference regions and benign prostate lesions, T1 relaxation times and ADC values demonstrated AUC = 0.80 and AUC = 0.83, respectively (P = 0.519). Discriminating PCa from radiologically suspicious lesions with benign histology, T1 relaxation times and ADC values showed AUC = 0.69 and AUC = 0.62, respectively (P = 0.446). Conclusions T1FLASH-based T1 mapping yields robust results for quantification of prostate T1 relaxation time at a short examination time of 2:10 minutes without evident image artifacts. Associated T1 relaxation times could aid in discrimination of significant and nonsignificant PCa. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results in a larger patient cohort, to assess the additional benefit of T1FLASH maps in conjunction with mpMRI sequences in the setting of deep learning, and to evaluate the robustness of T1FLASH maps compared with potentially artifact-prone diffusion-weighted imaging sequences.

Type: Article
Title: T1 Mapping of the Prostate Using Single-Shot T1FLASH: A Clinical Feasibility Study to Optimize Prostate Cancer Assessment
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000945
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000945
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Male, Humans, Prostate, Feasibility Studies, Hyperplasia, Prostatic Neoplasms, Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Image-Guided Biopsy, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Retrospective Studies
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10171592
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