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Gene Edited T Cell Therapies for Inborn Errors of Immunity

Fox, TA; Houghton, BC; Booth, C; (2022) Gene Edited T Cell Therapies for Inborn Errors of Immunity. Frontiers in Genome Editing , 4 , Article 899294. 10.3389/fgeed.2022.899294. Green open access

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Abstract

Inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of the immune system. Many IEIs have a severe clinical phenotype that results in progressive morbidity and premature mortality. Over 450 IEIs have been described and the incidence of all IEIs is 1/1,000–10,000 people. Current treatment options are unsatisfactory for many IEIs. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is curative but requires the availability of a suitable donor and carries a risk of graft failure, graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Autologous gene therapy (GT) offers a cure whilst abrogating the immunological complications of alloHSCT. Gene editing (GE) technologies allow the precise modification of an organisms’ DNA at a base-pair level. In the context of genetic disease, this enables correction of genetic defects whilst preserving the endogenous gene control machinery. Gene editing technologies have the potential to transform the treatment landscape of IEIs. In contrast to gene addition techniques, gene editing using the CRISPR system repairs or replaces the mutation in the DNA. Many IEIs are limited to the lymphoid compartment and may be amenable to T cell correction alone (rather than haematopoietic stem cells). T cell Gene editing has the advantages of higher editing efficiencies, reduced risk of deleterious off-target edits in terminally differentiated cells and less toxic conditioning required for engraftment of lymphocytes. Although most T cells lack the self-renewing property of HSCs, a population of T cells, the T stem cell memory compartment has long-term multipotent and self-renewal capacity. Gene edited T cell therapies for IEIs are currently in development and may offer a less-toxic curative therapy to patients affected by certain IEIs. In this review, we discuss the history of T cell gene therapy, developments in T cell gene editing cellular therapies before detailing exciting pre-clinical studies that demonstrate gene editing T cell therapies as a proof-of-concept for several IEIs.

Type: Article
Title: Gene Edited T Cell Therapies for Inborn Errors of Immunity
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fgeed.2022.899294
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3389/fgeed.2022.899294
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: Cellular therapeutics, gene editing, gene therapeutics, inborn error of immunity (IEI), primary immumunodeficiencies, t cell
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10171409
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