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Pediatric joint hypermobility: a diagnostic framework and narrative review

Tofts, LJ; Simmonds, J; Schwartz, SB; Richheimer, RM; O'Connor, C; Elias, E; Engelbert, R; ... Pacey, V; + view all (2023) Pediatric joint hypermobility: a diagnostic framework and narrative review. Orphanet journal of rare diseases , 18 (1) , Article 104. 10.1186/s13023-023-02717-2. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) and hypermobility spectrum disorders (HSD) are debilitating conditions. Diagnosis is currently clinical in the absence of biomarkers, and criteria developed for adults are difficult to use in children and biologically immature adolescents. Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is a prerequisite for hEDS and generalized HSD. Current literature identifies a large proportion of children as hypermobile using a Beighton score ≥ 4 or 5/9, the cut off for GJH in adults. Other phenotypic features from the 2017 hEDS criteria can arise over time. Finally, many comorbidities described in hEDS/HSD are also seen in the general pediatric and adolescent population. Therefore, pediatric specific criteria are needed. The Paediatric Working Group of the International Consortium on EDS and HSD has developed a pediatric diagnostic framework presented here. The work was informed by a review of the published evidence. OBSERVATIONS: The framework has 4 components, GJH, skin and tissue abnormalities, musculoskeletal complications, and core comorbidities. A Beighton score of ≥ 6/9 best identifies children with GJH at 2 standard deviations above average, based on published general population data. Skin and soft tissue changes include soft skin, stretchy skin, atrophic scars, stretch marks, piezogenic papules, and recurrent hernias. Two symptomatic groups were agreed: musculoskeletal and systemic. Emerging comorbid relationships are discussed. The framework generates 8 subgroups, 4 pediatric GJH, and 4 pediatric generalized hypermobility spectrum disorders. hEDS is reserved for biologically mature adolescents who meet the 2017 criteria, which also covers even rarer types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome at any age. CONCLUSIONS: This framework allows hypermobile children to be categorized into a group describing their phenotypic and symptomatic presentation. It clarifies the recommendation that comorbidities should be defined using their current internationally accepted frameworks. This provides a foundation for improving clinical care and research quality in this population.

Type: Article
Title: Pediatric joint hypermobility: a diagnostic framework and narrative review
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s13023-023-02717-2
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13023-023-02717-2
Language: English
Additional information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Adolescent, Child, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, Joint hypermobility, Adult, Adolescent, Humans, Child, Joint Instability, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Connective Tissue Diseases, Skin
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10170956
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