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Socioeconomic inequalities of Long COVID: a retrospective population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom

Shabnam, Sharmin; Razieh, Cameron; Dambha-Miller, Hajira; Yates, Tom; Gillies, Clare; Chudasama, Yogini V; Pareek, Manish; ... Islam, Nazrul; + view all (2023) Socioeconomic inequalities of Long COVID: a retrospective population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 10.1177/01410768231168377. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of Long COVID by socioeconomic deprivation and to further examine the inequality by sex and occupation. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using data from the ONS COVID-19 Infection Survey between 26 April 2020 and 31 January 2022. This is the largest nationally representative survey of COVID-19 in the UK with longitudinal data on occupation, COVID-19 exposure and Long COVID. SETTING: Community-based survey in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 201,799 participants aged 16 to 64 years and with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The risk of Long COVID at least 4 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection by index of multiple deprivation (IMD) and the modifying effects of socioeconomic deprivation by sex and occupation. RESULTS: Nearly 10% (n = 19,315) of participants reported having Long COVID. Multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for a range of variables (demographic, co-morbidity and time), showed that participants in the most deprived decile had a higher risk of Long COVID (11.4% vs. 8.2%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 1.59) compared to the least deprived decile. Significantly higher inequalities (most vs. least deprived decile) in Long COVID existed in healthcare and patient-facing roles (aOR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.44), in the education sector (aOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.31, 2.16) and in women (aOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.40, 1.73) than men (aOR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.51). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the heterogeneous degree of inequality in Long COVID by deprivation, sex and occupation. These findings will help inform public health policies and interventions in incorporating a social justice and health inequality lens.

Type: Article
Title: Socioeconomic inequalities of Long COVID: a retrospective population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1177/01410768231168377
Publisher version: http://doi.org/ 10.1177/01410768231168377
Language: English
Additional information: © The Royal Society of Medicine. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage). Request permissions for this article.
Keywords: Long COVID, index of multiple deprivation, occupation, sex, socioeconomic inequality
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Health Informatics
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10170615
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