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Influence of Gelatin Source and Bloom Number on Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogels Mechanical and Biological Properties for Muscle Regeneration

Aljaber, Mohammad B; Verisqa, Fiona; Keskin-Erdogan, Zalike; Patel, Kapil D; Chau, David YS; Knowles, Jonathan C; (2023) Influence of Gelatin Source and Bloom Number on Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogels Mechanical and Biological Properties for Muscle Regeneration. Biomolecules , 13 (5) , Article 811. 10.3390/biom13050811. Green open access

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Abstract

Approximately half of an adult human’s body weight is made up of muscles. Thus, restoring the functionality and aesthetics of lost muscle tissue is critical. The body is usually able to repair minor muscle injuries. However, when volumetric muscle loss occurs due to tumour extraction, for instance, the body will form fibrous tissue instead. Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels have been applied for drug delivery, tissue adhesive, and various tissue engineering applications due to their tuneable mechanical properties. Here, we have synthesised GelMA from different gelatin sources (i.e., porcine, bovine, and fish) with varying bloom numbers, which refers to the gel strength, and investigated for the influence of the source of gelatin and the bloom number on biological activities and mechanical properties. The results indicated that the source of the gelatin and variable bloom numbers have an impact on GelMA hydrogel properties. Furthermore, our findings established that the bovine-derived gelatin methacryloyl (B-GelMA) has better mechanical properties than the other varieties composed of porcine and fish with 60 kPa, 40 kPa, and 10 kPa in bovine, porcine, and fish, respectively. Additionally, it showed a noticeably greater swelling ratio (SR) ~1100% and a reduced rate of degradation, improving the stability of hydrogels and giving cells adequate time to divide and proliferate to compensate for muscle loss. Furthermore, the bloom number of gelatin was also proven to influence the mechanical properties of GelMA. Interestingly, although GelMA made of fish had the lowest mechanical strength and gel stability, it demonstrated excellent biological properties. Overall, the results emphasise the importance of gelatin source and bloom number, allowing GelMA hydrogels to have a wide range of mechanical and excellent biological properties and making them suitable for various muscle tissue regeneration applications.

Type: Article
Title: Influence of Gelatin Source and Bloom Number on Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogels Mechanical and Biological Properties for Muscle Regeneration
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/biom13050811
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/biom13050811
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Hydrogel; muscle regeneration; GelMA; tissue engineering; mechanical properties
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute > Biomaterials and Tissue Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10169946
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