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The occurrence rate of giant planets orbiting low-mass stars with TESS

Bryant, Edward M; Bayliss, Daniel; Van Eylen, Vincent; (2023) The occurrence rate of giant planets orbiting low-mass stars with TESS. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society , 521 (3) pp. 3663-3681. 10.1093/mnras/stad626. Green open access

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Abstract

We present a systematic search for transiting giant planets (⁠0.6RJ≤RP≤2.0RJ ⁠) orbiting nearby low-mass stars (⁠M∗≤0.71M⊙ ⁠). The formation of giant planets around low-mass stars is predicted to be rare by the core-accretion planet formation theory. We search 91 306 low-mass stars in the TESS 30 min cadence photometry detecting fifteen giant planet candidates, including seven new planet candidates which were not known planets or identified as TOIs prior to our search. Our candidates present an exciting opportunity to improve our knowledge of the giant planet population around the lowest mass stars. We perform planet injection-recovery simulations and find that our pipeline has a high detection efficiency across the majority of our targeted parameter space. We measure the occurrence rates of giant planets with host stars in different stellar mass ranges spanning our full sample. We find occurrence rates of 0.137 ± 0.097  per cent (0.088–0.26 M⊙), 0.108 ± 0.083 per cent (0.26–0.42 M⊙), and 0.29 ± 0.15 per cent (0.42–0.71 M⊙). For our full sample (0.088–0.71 M⊙), we find a giant planet occurrence rate of 0.194 ± 0.072 per cent. We have measured for the first time the occurrence rate for giant planets orbiting stars with M∗≤0.4M⊙ and we demonstrate this occurrence rate to be non-zero. This result contradicts currently accepted planet formation models and we discuss some possibilities for how these planets could have formed.

Type: Article
Title: The occurrence rate of giant planets orbiting low-mass stars with TESS
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stad626
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stad626
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: planets and satellites: detection – planets and satellites: formation – stars: low-mass
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Space and Climate Physics
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10169684
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