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Insights into Exosome Transport through the Blood–Brain Barrier and the Potential Therapeutical Applications in Brain Diseases

Abdelsalam, M; Ahmed, M; Osaid, Z; Hamoudi, R; Harati, R; (2023) Insights into Exosome Transport through the Blood–Brain Barrier and the Potential Therapeutical Applications in Brain Diseases. Pharmaceuticals , 16 (4) , Article 571. 10.3390/ph16040571. Green open access

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Abstract

Drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is limited due to the presence of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), a selective physiological barrier located at the brain microvessels that regulates the flow of cells, molecules and ions between the blood and the brain. Exosomes are nanosized extracellular vesicles expressed by all cell types and that function as cargos, allowing for communication between the cells. The exosomes were shown to cross or regulate the BBB in healthy and disease conditions. However, the mechanistic pathways by which exosomes cross the BBB have not been fully elucidated yet. In this review, we explore the transport mechanisms of exosomes through the BBB. A large body of evidence suggests that exosome transport through the BBB occurs primarily through transcytosis. The transcytosis mechanisms are influenced by several regulators. Inflammation and metastasis also enhance exosome trafficking across the BBB. We also shed light on the therapeutical applications of exosomes for treating brain diseases. Further investigations are essential to provide clearer insights related to trafficking of exosomes across the BBB and disease treatment.

Type: Article
Title: Insights into Exosome Transport through the Blood–Brain Barrier and the Potential Therapeutical Applications in Brain Diseases
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/ph16040571
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16040571
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: blood–brain barrier (BBB), drug delivery, exosomes, neurovascular unit (NVU)
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10169472
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