UCL Discovery
UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery

Development and international validation of custom-engineered and code-free deep-learning models for detection of plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity: a retrospective study

Wagner, Siegfried K; Liefers, Bart; Radia, Meera; Zhang, Gongyu; Struyven, Robbert; Faes, Livia; Than, Jonathan; ... Balaskas, Konstantinos; + view all (2023) Development and international validation of custom-engineered and code-free deep-learning models for detection of plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity: a retrospective study. The Lancet Digital Health 10.1016/S2589-7500(23)00050-X. (In press). Green open access

[thumbnail of 1-s2.0-S258975002300050X-main.pdf]
Preview
PDF
1-s2.0-S258975002300050X-main.pdf - Published Version

Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a leading cause of childhood blindness, is diagnosed through interval screening by paediatric ophthalmologists. However, improved survival of premature neonates coupled with a scarcity of available experts has raised concerns about the sustainability of this approach. We aimed to develop bespoke and code-free deep learning-based classifiers for plus disease, a hallmark of ROP, in an ethnically diverse population in London, UK, and externally validate them in ethnically, geographically, and socioeconomically diverse populations in four countries and three continents. Code-free deep learning is not reliant on the availability of expertly trained data scientists, thus being of particular potential benefit for low resource health-care settings. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used retinal images from 1370 neonates admitted to a neonatal unit at Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK, between 2008 and 2018. Images were acquired using a Retcam Version 2 device (Natus Medical, Pleasanton, CA, USA) on all babies who were either born at less than 32 weeks gestational age or had a birthweight of less than 1501 g. Each images was graded by two junior ophthalmologists with disagreements adjudicated by a senior paediatric ophthalmologist. Bespoke and code-free deep learning models (CFDL) were developed for the discrimination of healthy, pre-plus disease, and plus disease. Performance was assessed internally on 200 images with the majority vote of three senior paediatric ophthalmologists as the reference standard. External validation was on 338 retinal images from four separate datasets from the USA, Brazil, and Egypt with images derived from Retcam and the 3nethra neo device (Forus Health, Bengaluru, India). FINDINGS: Of the 7414 retinal images in the original dataset, 6141 images were used in the final development dataset. For the discrimination of healthy versus pre-plus or plus disease, the bespoke model had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0·986 (95% CI 0·973-0·996) and the CFDL model had an AUC of 0·989 (0·979-0·997) on the internal test set. Both models generalised well to external validation test sets acquired using the Retcam for discriminating healthy from pre-plus or plus disease (bespoke range was 0·975-1·000 and CFDL range was 0·969-0·995). The CFDL model was inferior to the bespoke model on discriminating pre-plus disease from healthy or plus disease in the USA dataset (CFDL 0·808 [95% CI 0·671-0·909, bespoke 0·942 [0·892-0·982]], p=0·0070). Performance also reduced when tested on the 3nethra neo imaging device (CFDL 0·865 [0·742-0·965] and bespoke 0·891 [0·783-0·977]). INTERPRETATION: Both bespoke and CFDL models conferred similar performance to senior paediatric ophthalmologists for discriminating healthy retinal images from ones with features of pre-plus or plus disease; however, CFDL models might generalise less well when considering minority classes. Care should be taken when testing on data acquired using alternative imaging devices from that used for the development dataset. Our study justifies further validation of plus disease classifiers in ROP screening and supports a potential role for code-free approaches to help prevent blindness in vulnerable neonates.

Type: Article
Title: Development and international validation of custom-engineered and code-free deep-learning models for detection of plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity: a retrospective study
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/S2589-7500(23)00050-X
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(23)00050-X
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Ophthalmology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10168973
Downloads since deposit
21Downloads
Download activity - last month
Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads by country - last 12 months

Archive Staff Only

View Item View Item