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Efficacy and safety of emapalumab in macrophage activation syndrome

De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Grom, Alexei A; Brogan, Paul A; Bracaglia, Claudia; Pardeo, Manuela; Marucci, Giulia; Eleftheriou, Despina; ... de Min, Cristina; + view all (2023) Efficacy and safety of emapalumab in macrophage activation syndrome. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 10.1136/ard-2022-223739. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a severe, life-threatening complication of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD). The objective of this study was to confirm the adequacy of an emapalumab dosing regimen in relation to interferon-γ (IFNγ) activity by assessing efficacy and safety. The efficacy outcome was MAS remission by week 8, based on clinical and laboratory criteria. METHODS: We studied emapalumab, a human anti-IFNγ antibody, administered with background glucocorticoids, in a prospective single-arm trial involving patients who had MAS secondary to sJIA or AOSD and had previously failed high-dose glucocorticoids, with or without anakinra and/or ciclosporin. The study foresaw 4-week treatment that could be shortened or prolonged based on investigator's assessment of response. Patients entered a long-term (12 months) follow-up study. RESULTS: Fourteen patients received emapalumab. All patients completed the trial, entered the long-term follow-up and were alive at the end of follow-up. The investigated dosing regimen, based on an initial loading dose followed by maintenance doses, was appropriate, as shown by rapid neutralisation of IFNγ activity, demonstrated by a prompt decrease in serum C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9) levels. By week 8, MAS remission was achieved in 13 of the 14 patients at a median time of 25 days. Viral infections and positive viral tests were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralisation of IFNγ with emapalumab was efficacious in inducing remission of MAS secondary to sJIA or AOSD in patients who had failed high-dose glucocorticoids. Screening for viral infections should be performed, particularly for cytomegalovirus. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02069899 and NCT03311854.

Type: Article
Title: Efficacy and safety of emapalumab in macrophage activation syndrome
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1136/ard-2022-223739
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard-2022-223739
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Keywords: Still's disease, adult-onset, arthritis, juvenile, biological therapy, inflammation, therapeutics
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10167960
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