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Developing a medical device-grade T2 phantom optimized for myocardial T2 mapping by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Topriceanu, Constantin-Cristian; Fornasiero, Massimiliano; Seo, Han; Webber, Matthew; Keenan, Kathryn E; Stupic, Karl F; Bruehl, Rüdiger; ... Captur, Gabriella; + view all (2023) Developing a medical device-grade T2 phantom optimized for myocardial T2 mapping by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 25 (1) , Article 19. 10.1186/s12968-023-00926-z. Green open access

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: A long T2 relaxation time can reflect oedema, and myocardial inflammation when combined with increased plasma troponin levels. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T2 mapping therefore has potential to provide a key diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, T2 varies by scanner, software, and sequence, highlighting the need for standardization and for a quality assurance system for T2 mapping in CMR. AIM: To fabricate and assess a phantom dedicated to the quality assurance of T2 mapping in CMR. METHOD: A T2 mapping phantom was manufactured to contain 9 T1 and T2 (T1|T2) tubes to mimic clinically relevant native and post-contrast T2 in myocardium across the health to inflammation spectrum (i.e., 43-74 ms) and across both field strengths (1.5 and 3 T). We evaluated the phantom's structural integrity, B0 and B1 uniformity using field maps, and temperature dependence. Baseline reference T1|T2 were measured using inversion recovery gradient echo and single-echo spin echo (SE) sequences respectively, both with long repetition times (10 s). Long-term reproducibility of T1|T2 was determined by repeated T1|T2 mapping of the phantom at baseline and at 12 months. RESULTS: The phantom embodies 9 internal agarose-containing T1|T2 tubes doped with nickel di-chloride (NiCl2) as the paramagnetic relaxation modifier to cover the clinically relevant spectrum of myocardial T2. The tubes are surrounded by an agarose-gel matrix which is doped with NiCl2 and packed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) beads. All tubes at both field strengths, showed measurement errors up to ≤ 7.2 ms [< 14.7%] for estimated T2 by balanced steady-state free precession T2 mapping compared to reference SE T2 with the exception of the post-contrast tube of ultra-low T1 where the deviance was up to 16 ms [40.0%]. At 12 months, the phantom remained free of air bubbles, susceptibility, and off-resonance artifacts. The inclusion of HDPE beads effectively flattened the B0 and B1 magnetic fields in the imaged slice. Independent temperature dependency experiments over the 13-38 °C range confirmed the greater stability of shorter vs longer T1|T2 tubes. Excellent long-term (12-month) reproducibility of measured T1|T2 was demonstrated across both field strengths (all coefficients of variation < 1.38%). CONCLUSION: The T2 mapping phantom demonstrates excellent structural integrity, B0 and B1 uniformity, and reproducibility of its internal tube T1|T2 out to 1 year. This device may now be mass-produced to support the quality assurance of T2 mapping in CMR.

Type: Article
Title: Developing a medical device-grade T2 phantom optimized for myocardial T2 mapping by cardiovascular magnetic resonance
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12968-023-00926-z
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12968-023-00926-z
Language: English
Additional information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Phantom, Quality control, T1 mapping, T2 mapping
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine > MRC Unit for Lifelong Hlth and Ageing
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10167073
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