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In Vitro Hydrolytic Degradation of Polyester-Based Scaffolds under Static and Dynamic Conditions in a Customized Perfusion Bioreactor

Alaman-Diez, Pilar; Garcia-Gareta, Elena; Francisco Napal, Pedro; Arruebo, Manuel; Angeles Perez, Maria; (2022) In Vitro Hydrolytic Degradation of Polyester-Based Scaffolds under Static and Dynamic Conditions in a Customized Perfusion Bioreactor. Materials , 15 (7) , Article 2572. 10.3390/ma15072572. Green open access

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Abstract

Creating biofunctional artificial scaffolds could potentially meet the demand of patients suffering from bone defects without having to rely on donors or autologous transplantation. Three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a promising tool to fabricate, by computer design, biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with high precision and accuracy, using patient-specific anatomical data. Achieving controlled degradation profiles of 3D printed polymeric scaffolds is an essential feature to consider to match them with the tissue regeneration rate. Thus, achieving a thorough characterization of the biomaterial degradation kinetics in physiological conditions is needed. Here, 50:50 blends made of poly(ε-caprolactone)-Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PCL-PLGA) were used to fabricate cylindrical scaffolds by 3D printing (⌀ 7 × 2 mm). Their hydrolytic degradation under static and dynamic conditions was characterized and quantified. For this purpose, we designed and in-house fabricated a customized bioreactor. Several techniques were used to characterize the degradation of the parent polymers: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), evaluation of the mechanical properties, weigh loss measurements as well as the monitoring of the degradation media pH. Our results showed that flow perfusion is critical in the degradation process of PCL-PLGA based scaffolds implying an accelerated hydrolysis compared to the ones studied under static conditions, and up to 4 weeks are needed to observe significant degradation in polyester scaffolds of this size and chemical composition. Our degradation study and characterization methodology are relevant for an accurate design and to tailor the physicochemical properties of polyester-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Type: Article
Title: In Vitro Hydrolytic Degradation of Polyester-Based Scaffolds under Static and Dynamic Conditions in a Customized Perfusion Bioreactor
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/ma15072572
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072572
Language: English
Additional information: © 2022 by the Authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: biomaterials; scaffolds; degradation; hydrolysis; polyester-based materials; flow perfusion
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10166140
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