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Hepatitis delta infection among persons living with HIV in Europe

Béguelin, C; Atkinson, A; Boyd, A; Falconer, K; Kirkby, N; Suter-Riniker, F; Günthard, HF; ... Stefan, C; + view all (2023) Hepatitis delta infection among persons living with HIV in Europe. Liver International 10.1111/liv.15519. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A high prevalence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection, the most severe form of viral hepatitis, has been reported among persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Europe. We analysed data from a large HIV cohort collaboration to characterize HDV epidemiological trends across Europe, as well as its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All PLWH with a positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and EuroSIDA between 1988 and 2019 were tested for anti-HDV antibodies and, if positive, for HDV RNA. Demographic and clinical characteristics at initiation of antiretroviral therapy were compared between HDV-positive and HDV-negative individuals using descriptive statistics. The associations between HDV infection and overall mortality, liver-related mortality as well as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were assessed using cumulative incidence plots and cause-specific multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 2793 HBsAg-positive participants, 1556 (56%) had stored serum available and were included. The prevalence of HDV coinfection was 15.2% (237/1556, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.5%–17.1%) and 66% (132/200) of HDV-positive individuals had active HDV replication. Among persons who inject drugs (PWID), the prevalence of HDV coinfection was 50.5% (182/360, 95% CI: 45.3%–55.7%), with similar estimates across Europe, compared to 4.7% (52/1109, 95% CI: 3.5%–5.9%) among other participants. During a median follow-up of 10.8 years (interquartile range 5.6–17.8), 82 (34.6%) HDV-positive and 265 (20.1%) HDV-negative individuals died. 41.5% (34/82) of deaths were liver-related in HDV-positive individuals compared to 17.7% (47/265) in HDV-negative individuals. HDV infection was associated with overall mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.6; 95% CI 1.2–2.1), liver-related death (2.9, 1.6–5.0) and HCC (6.3, 2.5–16.0). CONCLUSION: We found a very high prevalence of hepatitis delta among PWID across Europe. Among PLWH who do not inject drugs, the prevalence was similar to that reported from populations without HIV. HDV coinfection was associated with liver-related mortality and HCC incidence.

Type: Article
Title: Hepatitis delta infection among persons living with HIV in Europe
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/liv.15519
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.15519
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 The Authors. Liver International published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords: HCC, HIV, Hepatitis Delta, PLWH, prevalence
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10164670
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