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Myocardial Involvement After Hospitalization for COVID-19 Complicated by Troponin Elevation: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study

Artico, Jessica; Shiwani, Hunain; Moon, James C; Gorecka, Miroslawa; McCann, Gerry P; Roditi, Giles; Morrow, Andrew; ... Greenwood, John P; + view all (2023) Myocardial Involvement After Hospitalization for COVID-19 Complicated by Troponin Elevation: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study. Circulation , 147 (5) pp. 364-374. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.122.062508. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial injury in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a poor prognosis. Its associations and pathogenesis are unclear. Our aim was to assess the presence, nature, and extent of myocardial damage in hospitalized patients with troponin elevation. METHODS: Across 25 hospitals in the United Kingdom, 342 patients with COVID-19 and an elevated troponin level (COVID+/troponin+) were enrolled between June 2020 and March 2021 and had a magnetic resonance imaging scan within 28 days of discharge. Two prospective control groups were recruited, comprising 64 patients with COVID-19 and normal troponin levels (COVID+/troponin-) and 113 patients without COVID-19 or elevated troponin level matched by age and cardiovascular comorbidities (COVID-/comorbidity+). Regression modeling was performed to identify predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events at 12 months. RESULTS: Of the 519 included patients, 356 (69%) were men, with a median (interquartile range) age of 61.0 years (53.8, 68.8). The frequency of any heart abnormality, defined as left or right ventricular impairment, scar, or pericardial disease, was 2-fold greater in cases (61% [207/342]) compared with controls (36% [COVID+/troponin-] versus 31% [COVID-/comorbidity+]; P<0.001 for both). More cases than controls had ventricular impairment (17.2% versus 3.1% and 7.1%) or scar (42% versus 7% and 23%; P<0.001 for both). The myocardial injury pattern was different, with cases more likely than controls to have infarction (13% versus 2% and 7%; P<0.01) or microinfarction (9% versus 0% and 1%; P<0.001), but there was no difference in nonischemic scar (13% versus 5% and 14%; P=0.10). Using the Lake Louise magnetic resonance imaging criteria, the prevalence of probable recent myocarditis was 6.7% (23/342) in cases compared with 1.7% (2/113) in controls without COVID-19 (P=0.045). During follow-up, 4 patients died and 34 experienced a subsequent major adverse cardiovascular event (10.2%), which was similar to controls (6.1%; P=0.70). Myocardial scar, but not previous COVID-19 infection or troponin, was an independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (odds ratio, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.12-4.57]; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with contemporary controls, patients with COVID-19 and elevated cardiac troponin level have more ventricular impairment and myocardial scar in early convalescence. However, the proportion with myocarditis was low and scar pathogenesis was diverse, including a newly described pattern of microinfarction. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.isrctn.com; Unique identifier: 58667920.

Type: Article
Title: Myocardial Involvement After Hospitalization for COVID-19 Complicated by Troponin Elevation: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.122.062508
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.122.062508
Language: English
Additional information: © 2023 The Authors. Circulation is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: COVID-19, cardiovascular diseases, coronavirus, magnetic resonance imaging, myocardial infarction, troponin
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10164014
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