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T-replete cord transplants give superior outcomes in high risk and relapsed/refractory paediatric myeloid malignancy

Horgan, Claire; Mullanfiroze, Khushnuma; Rauthan, Archana; Patrick, Katharine; Butt, Naeem Akram; Mirci-Danicar, Oana; O'Connor, Olya; ... Wynn, Robert; + view all (2023) T-replete cord transplants give superior outcomes in high risk and relapsed/refractory paediatric myeloid malignancy. Blood Advances 10.1182/bloodadvances.2022009253. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Stem cell transplant (SCT) outcomes in high-risk (HR) and relapsed/refractory (R/R) paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have been poor historically. Cord blood allows T-cell replete transplant (TRCB), enabling enhanced graft-versus-leukaemia. We collected data from 367 consecutive patients undergoing TRCB (112 patients) or other cell source (255 patients) SCT for paediatric AML/MDS in the UK and Ireland between January 2014 and December 2021. Data was collected about patient's demographics, disease and its treatment including previous transplant, measurable residual disease (MRD) status at transplant, HLA-match, relapse, death, graft versus host disease (GvHD) and transplant-related mortality (TRM). Univariable and multivariable analyses were undertaken. There was a higher incidence of poor prognosis features in the TRCB cohort: 51.4% patients were MRD positive at transplant, 46.4% had refractory disease and 21.4% had relapsed after a previous SCT, compared with 26.1%, 8.6% and 5.1% respectively in the comparator group (all p <0.001). Within the TRCB cohort, Event Free Survival (EFS) was 64.1%, 50% in MRD positive patients and 79% in MRD negative (p= 0.009). To allow for the imbalance in baseline characteristics, a multivariable analysis was performed: the TRCB cohort had significantly improved EFS (0.57[0.35-0.91], p=0.019), time to relapse (0.46[0.26-0.81), p=0.008), and reduced chronic GVHD (HR 0.28 [95% CI 0.11-0.70]; p=0.007), with some evidence of improved Overall Survival (OS) (0.65[0.39-1.07], p = 0.088). The effect appeared similar regardless of MRD status, (interaction p-value= 0.29). CB transplant without serotherapy may be the optimal transplant option for children with myeloid malignancy.

Type: Article
Title: T-replete cord transplants give superior outcomes in high risk and relapsed/refractory paediatric myeloid malignancy
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2022009253
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2022009253
Language: English
Additional information: This is an Open Access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) Licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10163667
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