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Extracellular Volume Fraction by Computed Tomography Predicts Long-Term Prognosis Among Patients With Cardiac Amyloidosis

Gama, Francisco; Rosmini, Stefania; Bandula, Steve; Patel, Kush P; Massa, Paolo; Tobon-Gomez, Catalina; Ecke, Karolin; ... Treibel, Thomas A; + view all (2022) Extracellular Volume Fraction by Computed Tomography Predicts Long-Term Prognosis Among Patients With Cardiac Amyloidosis. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging , 15 (12) pp. 2082-2094. 10.1016/j.jcmg.2022.08.006. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloid fibrils are deposited in the extracellular space of the myocardium, resulting in heart failure and premature mortality. Extracellular expansion can be quantified by computed tomography, offering a rapid, cheaper, and more practical alternative to cardiac magnetic resonance, especially among patients with cardiac devices or on renal dialysis. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the association of extracellular volume fraction by computed tomography (ECVCT), myocardial remodeling, and mortality in patients with systemic amyloidosis. METHODS: Patients with confirmed systemic amyloidosis and varying degrees of cardiac involvement underwent electrocardiography-gated cardiac computed tomography. Whole heart and septal ECVCT was analyzed. All patients also underwent clinical assessment, electrocardiography, echocardiography, serum amyloid protein component, and/or technetium-99m (99mTc) 3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid scintigraphy. ECVCT was compared across different extents of cardiac infiltration (ATTR Perugini grade/AL Mayo stage) and evaluated for its association with myocardial remodeling and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients were studied (AL: n = 35, ATTR: n = 37; median age 67 [IQR: 59-76] years, 70.8% male). Mean septal ECVCT was 42.7% ± 13.1% and 55.8% ± 10.9% in AL and ATTR amyloidosis, respectively, and correlated with indexed left ventricular mass (r = 0.426; P < 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.460; P < 0.001), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (r = 0.563; P < 0.001), and high-sensitivity troponin T (r = 0.546; P < 0.001). ECVCT increased with cardiac amyloid involvement in both AL and ATTR amyloid. Over a mean follow-up of 5.3 ± 2.4 years, 40 deaths occurred (AL: n = 14 [35.0%]; ATTR: n = 26 [65.0%]). Septal ECVCT was independently associated with all-cause mortality in ATTR (not AL) amyloid after adjustment for age and septal wall thickness (HR: 1.046; 95% CI:1.003-1.090; P = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac amyloid burden quantified by ECVCT is associated with adverse cardiac remodeling as well as all-cause mortality among ATTR amyloid patients. ECVCT may address the need for better identification and risk stratification of amyloid patients, using a widely accessible imaging modality.

Type: Article
Title: Extracellular Volume Fraction by Computed Tomography Predicts Long-Term Prognosis Among Patients With Cardiac Amyloidosis
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2022.08.006
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2022.08.006
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: cardiac amyloidosis, computed tomography, extracellular matrix, myocardial extracellular volume fraction, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial tissue characterization
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Department of Imaging
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10159999
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